Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit Programs: A Survey of Current Practices and the Need for Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit Programs within Adventist Education

 

 

 

Shelley Bacon

 

Masters in Leadership Thesis

Professor: Shirley Freed

May 2, 2004


 

 

Abstract

            Research Problem: Public higher education and high school programs are collaborating to provide dual enrollment/dual credit programs for qualifying seniors and/or juniors and seniors. These programs are widely available and almost always free. Adventist faith-based education has no comparable program to fill this need. Adventist LEAP – Leading Edge Accelerated Program – needs to be established to meet the academic needs of accelerated Adventist high school students from a distinctly Adventist faith-based perspective.

Research Question: The central research question is to ascertain the need for implementing an Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit program such as is currently being proposed by Walla Walla College and myself. More specifically, this project asks the questions, “What faith-based, distinctively Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit programs are available to Adventist students on our academy and college campuses?” “What are the perceptions of need for such programs within Adventist education?”

Data Collection Procedure: Mixed methods were used in collecting data. Questionnaires were sent to 12 Adventist institutions of higher learning in order to ascertain the availability of dual enrollment/dual credit programs as well as distance learning courses. Academic vice presidents or someone of their choosing was asked to fill out these forms. Questionnaires were sent to 93 Adventist academies in the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventist Churches for the purpose of discovering what options were available at the high school level for advanced placement and/or dual enrollment/dual credit programs. Questionnaires were sent to 93 churches in the North Pacific Union Conference for the purpose of determining where our Adventist young people were attending school. All responses were compiled and quantitatively analyzed to represent the results of the questionnaires. Additionally, two focus groups were held to solicit opinions from parents of advanced high school students about dual enrollment/dual credit programs. These focus group comments were qualitatively analyzed.

Findings: There is widespread implementation of dual enrollment/dual credit programs in the public school sector. Every state has a program. In the Adventist school system, dual enrollment/dual credit programs are not widely available. More readily available is a similar but different program called “AP,” standing for “Advanced Placement” program. Adventist colleges are not currently offering many dual enrollment/dual credit courses, and no dual enrollment/dual credit courses are offered through distance learning.  Church clerks in the North Pacific Union Conference indicated that few Adventist students were attending dual enrollment/dual credit programs in their local area. I expected to find a higher percentage of students being reported by the local church clerks as attending community college programs in a dual enrollment/dual credit program, but I did not. My prior experience in my own small town with a significant number of Adventist youth attending the local community college’s dual enrollment/dual credit program (“Running Start”) for their junior and senior year of high school led me to believe that implementing such a program for Adventist education was important. This idea became crystallized in the winter of 2002 when one of my students wanted to attend a dual enrollment/dual credit program in their state of Florida and the mother called me for advice. While the church clerk questionnaires do not indicate a high percentage of Adventist youth who are enrolled in public dual enrollment/dual credit programs, I believe the number would be higher if I were able to find or develop the right research tool to more accurately ascertain these figures. A low percentage of church clerks (30%) returned the surveys, further questioning their accuracy in drawing conclusions about dual enrollment/dual credit enrollment by Adventist children. The focus groups did allow for significant questioning of the philosophy behind instituting an Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit program, but especially the second research group affirmed what I had believed: There is a perceived need among parents of advanced students for an Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit program. I recommend that Adventist education continue to work to implement such programs in our Adventist system.


Introduction

 

Dual enrollment/dual credit programs are called by many names throughout our nation. They all have at least one thing in common: Dual enrollment/dual credit programs allow high school students to enroll in college level classes while still in high school. These programs vary from state to state, but primarily are a cooperation of local community colleges (and sometimes four-year colleges) and high schools. Most states allow credit to be given for both high school and college when taking a college level class (either an AP [Advanced Placement] class or an actual college class). Additionally most states pay for part if not all of a student’s dual enrollment courses at the community college level. While some disagreement exists, the overall research to date indicates that these dual enrollment/dual credit programs (sometimes called “College Early” or “Postsecondary Educational Options”) enhance a student’s performance in college. Some dual enrollment/dual credit programs utilize distance education as one means of delivering dual enrollment/dual credit courses. Adventist education has no formal program that parallels this primarily public program. This research will give an overview of current dual enrollment/dual credit programs in the public sector, detail the presence of any dual enrollment/dual credit options at Adventist academies and colleges, and demonstrate a felt need for faith-based, Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit programs.

This thesis paper will outline the following:

Current Trends in Public Education for Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit

History of dual enrollment in public education

The birthplace of dual enrollment is difficult to pinpoint. Syracuse University, a private university in New York was the leader and perhaps the inspiration for all dual enrollment programs. “Syracuse University Project Advance (SUPA) began in 1972 when seven local high schools approached Syracuse University to devise a program to offer college courses to qualified high school seniors” (Syracuse University Project Advance). The Syracuse model focuses on teaching college level classes at the high school level.  The first state to implement a dual enrollment program was Minnesota. “In 1985 the State of Minnesota passed a bill creating the Post Secondary Enrollment Options Program (PSEO) which allows high school juniors and seniors to take courses full-or part-time at a post-secondary institution for high school credit” (Southwest Minnesota State University ). New York instituted a program called “College Now,” but it is not based on the same model as most dual enrollment/dual credit programs and is not identified as the first such program. "College Now" in New York City was created by agreement between the City University of New York [CUNY] and the New York City Public School System in 1984” (Hoffman, N.). Washington State began their “Running Start” program in 1990 with a two-year pilot program involving a limited number of high schools and community colleges. In the 1992-93 school year, 3,350 students enrolled in the program as it expanded statewide (http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/data/rsrchrpts/runstart_a03.pdf, p. 2). These programs appear to be the oldest dual enrollment/dual credit programs in the nation.

            Dual enrollment/dual credit programs were created for a variety of reasons. Catron (1998) mentions the following rationales for implementing such programs: “increasing college tuition costs, public skepticism about the value of increased secondary school spending, debate over the purpose of college and the meaning of cultural literacy.” A 2001 document compiled by the Education Committee of the States Center for Community College Policy (http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/28/11/2811.doc) lists additional reasons for encouraging and implementing dual enrollment/dual credit programs:

         To promote rigorous academics and to provide more educational options

         To save students time and money on a college degree

         To encourage competition from colleges and universities which then might pressure secondary schools to be more responsive to student and parent needs

         To accelerate student progress towards a degree in order to free up additional space on campus to meet the increased demands for college access by the children of the “baby boom” generation

         To provide greater academic opportunities for students at small rural schools

         To enable greater collaboration between high school and college faculty

         To increase student aspirations to go to college

         To build closer ties between colleges and their communities.

Overview of Dual Enrollment Programs

Dual enrollment/dual credit programs have grown steadily since the idea of offering college-level courses to high schools was first implemented. Washington’s Running Start program’s enrollment has increased by about three percent per year (Hoffman, 2003, p. 6), with a 5% increase in the 2002-2003 school year over the previous year’s enrollment (Koenninger et al, 2002-2003); it “currently serves about 10% of the states high school juniors and seniors,” bringing the total enrollment to 14,682 for the 2002-2003 school year (Koenninger et al, 2002-2003, p. 2).  Dual enrollment classes were filled with 11,000 students in Arizona, according to Hoffman (2003, p. 6). New York’s “College Now” program “now includes a pilot for ninth graders and expects to serve 45,000 students in 2002-2003,” and Florida’s “Dual Enrollment” program “experienced an 82 percent cumulative increase between 1992 and 2001” (Hoffman, 2003, p. 6). Minnesota reports that “in 1999-2000…about 20 percent or 12,000 Minnesota high school seniors took advantage of the Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program” (Hoffman, 2003, p. 6).

            The most recent information available indicates that all 50 of the United States currently have functioning, public dual enrollment programs. The definitions, policies, and procedures for these programs vary from state to state, but the most common characteristic of all programs is that they give credit for both high school and college when a qualifying junior or senior takes a college-level class. In fact, 49 out of 50 states give both secondary and post secondary   credit for classes taken in a dual enrollment situation (Hale, 2002). Appendix B gives an excellent summary of all state programs, and includes information about finances, credit, incentives, etc. 

            Suffice it to say, the popularity of dual enrollment programs is increasing. Interestingly, Edwards (2001) says there” is a push throughout the country to assure that some dual-credit courses — including Advanced Placement courses — are offered in every high school. This push has made dual-enrollment classes the fastest growing segment of the high school curriculum” (p. 6).

            Dual enrollment/dual credit programs are offered not only at public institutions, but at private institutions as well. Private colleges are creating structures to allow students to take college credits while in high school and receive both secondary and postsecondary credit. San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton, CA, has a “College Early Start Program.” This program gives college credit only, but lets each school district determine whether they will grant secondary credit for the college courses completed in this program (College Early Start Program, College Credit Opportunities). The Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities is “one of only two residential programs for gifted and talented high school students recognized by the Texas State Legislature. Academy students fulfill their junior and senior high school requirements by taking university classes and thereby earn college credit as well” (Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities). Guilford College in Greensboro, NC, is working with the local high school to institute a dual enrollment/dual credit program. Schuh (2001) says “Guilford County high school teachers would teach ninth and tenth graders in Guilford’s classroom space, while the eleventh and twelfth graders would take regular college classes and have dual enrollment status. Upon graduating from high school, the students would also have completed their first two years of college.” Concordia University in St. Paul, Minnesota, allows juniors and seniors to enroll in 100 and 200 level courses in cooperation with the Minnesota Post-Secondary Enrollment Act (Post-secondary Enrollment Options). The colleges and universities mentioned are only a sampling of the institutions of higher education that either have or are developing a dual enrollment/dual credit program.

            Dual enrollment/dual credit programs are also increasingly turning to distance education as one means of offering courses and conferring credit. Northwest College offers post-secondary enrollment options for high school juniors and seniors who wish to enroll in “non-sectarian” college courses through distance learning (Center for Distance Education, Northwestern Colleges). Additionally, both North Dakota and Colorado use distance learning as a component of their dual enrollment programs (Hale, 2002). Washington’s Running Start students are also accessing more online education for their dual credits. Koenninger et al. (2002-2003) report the following:

Following a national trend in higher education, Running Start students are utilizing more online instruction. In the last five years, the online FTE has grown by 440 percent. Most of the online courses are in social science, English composition and humanities. Washington’s community and technical colleges offer two-year degrees online. Making the virtual campus available to Running Start students makes the program more accessible to students in remote areas and allows students to access college courses from their high school campus. (Some high schools have designated one free period a day so students can get into the computer labs to participate in a variety of online learning experiences.)

The statistics included in this study tell us that 64 FTE students utilized distance learning in 1998-99, as opposed to 343 FTE students just four years later during the 2002-2003 school year. The headcount for distance learning in the same time frame is 427 and 2008, respectively. Illinois reports that 16 of the 48 public community colleges offer dual credit courses using distance learning (2-way interactive), and 12 colleges utilize the Internet to offer dual credit courses (Andrews, 2000). While face-to-face instruction (primarily on the community college or college/university campus) is still the primary source of instruction, distance learning is an option for at least some dual enrollment/dual credit programs.

            Whether dual enrollment programs utilize face-to-face instruction or distance learning, funding of these programs varies from state to state (see Chart 1 in appendix). Some states have what is termed “comprehensive” dual enrollment programs where students pay little or no enrollment fees, where credit is given at both secondary and college levels, and/or where few course restrictions apply. These states include California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Utah. “Limited” program states have dual enrollment programs where students pay tuition, or where there are more academic and course restrictions. These states include Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Wyoming  (Hale, 2002). Ohio Valley College dual enrollment credits cost $39.00/credit hour, which is a special tuition rate for the dual enrollment program only (Early College Entrance Program, Ohio Valley College). Western Piedmont College in North Carolina offers dual enrollment (“concurrent” enrollment) courses for free. Students have to pay $5-10 for courses and purchase their books (Western Piedmont Community College Concurrent Enrollment). At Concordia University in Minnesota, high school juniors and seniors can take courses on a space-available basis for no charge. They don’t even have to purchase their own books (Post-secondary Enrollment Options).          

            The method of conferring credits for dual enrollment/dual credit programs is individually decided by the states just as tuition policies vary from state to state. According to Apendix B, most states confer credit for both high school and college for dual enrollment courses. Some states list options of “Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit.” Hawaii’s Running Start (RS) program, modeled to a large degree after Washington State’s similarly named program, worked through the credit issue based on how Washington solved the problem:

This dual designation process was, initially, problematic in Washington as well (there are no high school direct equivalents of many college courses). Washington resolved this problem by listing RS college courses on high school transcripts by using a prefix of RS, followed by the high school core area alpha, followed by the college alpha and course number. For example a Sociology 100 (Intro to Sociology course) would be listed as a Social Studies unit on a high school transcript as: RS SS SOC 100 (Cleveland, 2002, p. 16).

 

Success of Current Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit Programs

            Dual enrollment/dual credit programs are widespread and popular. But are they effective? Is this concept just another educational trend that will end up littering the halls of academia as one more failed attempt at educating our youth? Bailey and Karp (2003) undertook a significant study to determine the effectiveness of transitional programs, including dual enrollment programs. They reviewed all literature from 1990 to 2003, interviewed state and college level personnel, and did their own fieldwork at 15 community colleges in seven states between 2000 and 2002. What is very interesting about this study is its inclusion of preparing not only the above average or bright student for transition to college, but enabling a smooth and successful transition for the slower and more challenged student as well. Bailey and Karp (2003) argue that dual enrollment programs will benefit these students in several specific ways:

§         Prepare students for the academic rigors of college

§         Provide more realistic information to students about the skills they need to succeed in college

§         Help high school faculty prepare their students for the college experience

§         Expose traditionally non-college-bound students to college

§         Provide curricular options to students

§         Improve motivation through high expectations

§         Lower the cost of postsecondary education for students (pp 4-6).

Bailey and Karp conclude the first part of their study by stating that “credit-based transition programs are believed to lead to many positive outcomes for students…and some educators argue that even exposing lower achieving students to college early can improve their access to college and their success once they are there” (pp. 6-7). These researchers go on to discuss and quote a number of studies about various transitional programs (AP, IB, Tech prep, dual enrollment). For instance, one study done in Arizona tried to account for prior academic achievement. This study compared students who had participated in “either AP or dual enrollment (or both) to those who did not participate in any credit-based transition program…” (Bailey and Karp, 2003) and found that the students who had participated in some sort of dual enrollment program had smaller drops in their grade point averages during their freshman year as compared to other students (p. 24). While several other studies were quoted, Is concluded that data about the success of transitional programs of all kinds was not sufficient to draw any definitive conclusions as to the success and/or effectiveness of these programs, particularly because most studies (with the exception of the Arizona study mentioned above) did not allow for exceptions based on prior academic achievement.

            Western Washington University did a study quoted in the Running Start 2000-01 Annual Progress Report that showed “study participants reported feeling well prepared academically for Western” (p. 3). Additionally, “All students said that their exposure to…courses at the community college had helped them choose their major field of study at Western” (p. 4). An additional study coming out of Washington’s Running Start program is quoted in A Smart Investment, an online newsletter from Washington Community and Technical Colleges. In this study, 920 Running Start students were studied in the fall of 2001. In a review of the Running Start students’ performance, it was found that these students averaged almost exactly the same GPA as the same as all other students who entered the University of Washington as freshmen. However, this study also concluded that Running Start students earned higher GPAs and were more likely to graduate in four years than students who began their college education at the UW (Running Start, 2003). An additional statistic from Washington’s Running Start program tells us that the 2002-03 Running Start students “earned an average grade point of 3.16 after transferring to the University of Washington” (Koenninger et al, 2002-03, p. 2). Hawaii’s Running Start program’s second year evaluation summarized the success of the program in the following manner:

An analysis of the actual grades (not self reported, but gathered from HCC student records) of RS student performance for the Spring and Summer Semesters of 2002 demonstrate that RS students are succeeding in their college coursework.

Running Start students completed (with grades) 83% of the classes in which they enrolled (a higher percentage of class completions than experienced by traditional first semester HCC liberal arts students).

      Only one RS student received a failing (“F”) grade.   Overall (including the “F”), the grade point average for Spring 2002 RS students was 3.06 (“W” and “N” Grades not included in calculation.) (Cleveland and Maslowski, 2002).

 

 It should be noted that the mean GPA for students entering the Hawaii Running Start program was 2.9, with a low of 2.0 and a high of 3.7 (Davidson, 2002, p. 9). Hawaii’s RS program’s second year evaluation reveals several additional significant facts. First, most high school students plan to either increase their participation in high school activities (26%) or maintain their current level of high school activity participation (72%), allaying the fears of some that participation in these programs interferes significantly with the ability of high school students to be actively engaged in their high school experience. Second, most participants in Hawaii’s RS program are first generation college students. The study reports that “53% of RS fathers and 59% of RS mothers did not attend college” (Cleveland and Maslowski, 2002). This is especially important in light of the third interesting fact: “An increasing percentage of RS students report that they plan to earn advanced degrees.  Last summer about three-quarters of respondents reported that they would pursue advanced degrees.  This year 84% of the respondents are seeking Master’s, Doctorate, or Professional Degrees” (Cleveland and Maslowski, 2002, chart/table #4).

            An additional benefit of dual enrollment/dual credit programs that contribute to their success and to the success of the students who utilize them is the alleviation of a syndrome known as “senioritis,” or “senior slump.” Peterson’s (2003) article “Overcoming the Senior Slump: The Community College Role,” summarizes a study by Kirst (2001) in this manner: “[Kirst] indicates that students who waste their senior year, even if they engaged in challenging courses during their preceding years of high school, are often unprepared for college-level work and are more likely to drop-out.” Peterson (2003) draws the conclusion that “senior slump” creates problems that community college programs (such as dual enrollment options) can address. Apparently, this “senior slump” problem was significant enough to call for the formation of a special commission to study the issues surrounding the phenomenon. The National Commission on the High School Senior Year (2001) gave a number of recommendations for curing the syndrome of “senioritis.” Along with suggestions for the senior year moving away from “more of the same” to a year filled with projects, internships, and research projects, the commission suggested seniors “take college level courses” (p. 22). A further recommendation stated that collaboration should occur between high schools and university administrators, and that they should pay “particular attention to the linkages between the last two years of high school and collegiate curricula” (p. 25). The commission mentioned dual enrollment in specific as one means of accomplishing an additional recommendation that “state and local educators…reshape the senior year to provide more learning opportunities of all kinds” (p. 32). “We believe that…dual enrollment options…should be encouraged,” the Commission stated (p. 32). The National Commission on the High School Senior Year strongly believes that the academic rigor of the senior year in high school should be strengthened, and that dual enrollment programs could be a significant way to accomplish that goal.

Summary of Current Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit Programs

            Recent literature tells us that dual enrollment/dual credit programs – called by many different names – are ubiquitous. They have existed in some form in this country for thirty years. Arguably, they are successful in meeting their stated goals. Students certainly do no poorer in dual enrollment courses than they do in their high school courses, and participation in college level courses during high school tends to prepare students for success when they are enrolled full time at a college of their choice. Most dual enrollment/dual credit programs are offered through public education, but some private colleges are entering this area as well. What is Adventist education doing to meet the needs of its advanced students? Do we have any faith-based initiative to compete with the ubiquitous and often free dual enrollment courses offered elsewhere?

Current Practices of Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit in Adventist Education

            In order to answer the research question, “What faith-based, distinctively Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit programs are available to Adventist students on our academy and college campuses?” surveys were sent to all 12-grade Adventist academies and to all colleges in the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventist. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and is represented in the narrative and figures below.

Adventist College/University Current practices dual credit/dual enrollment

A survey was sent to the academic vice presidents of Adventist colleges and universities in the United States with the intention of discovering what dual enrollment/dual credit programs (including Advanced Placement or AP programs) were currently being offered through Adventist higher educational institutions (see Appendix E). Of the 12 surveys sent, nine were completed and returned.

            The first survey question asked if the institution currently offered any advanced placement classes for high school students. (AP classes are typically taught at high schools by high school teachers, but Adventist colleges/universities approve qualified academy teachers as instructors for AP courses.) Of the nine institutions responding, six answered “yes.” Those who responded with a “yes” to the first question answered a follow-up question about the requirements for such classes. Five of the six institutions that offer AP classes have a minimum GPA requirement. Four of those five require a minimum GPA of 3.0; the fifth requires a minimum GPA of 3.5. None of the six institutions that offer AP classes had a minimum age requirement, but four allow both junior and senior students to take AP classes, and two allow only seniors to enroll. Two of the six also require either permission of the principal, or recommendation of the principal or guidance counselor. (Figure 1.)

 

Colleges/Universities Offering AP 

Figure 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Of the six colleges/universities that offer AP courses, two only offer classes taught by on-site faculty (high school students must be on the college/university campus to participate). Three of the six offer classes on site in addition to classes by qualified academy teachers on the academy campus. One of these three contracts with qualified teachers on academy campuses to teach AP classes. One college/university only offers AP classes taught by qualified academy teachers on the academy campus. (Figure 2.)

 

Colleges/Universities Offering AP

Figure 2

           

The colleges/universities were asked to list the courses available to high school students utilizing the AP system. Because most AP courses are taught at the high school level, colleges/universities may not consider that they officially “offer” these courses, but simply transcript the credits for such courses. Two colleges/universities attached documents from their bulletins listing a significant number of AP classes for which their institution would grant credit upon receiving a passing score from the student taking the AP test. The college/university then simply transcripts the grades. Because of the lack of definition of “AP” classes on the research questionnaire, it appears that the respondents included all courses available to high school juniors and/or seniors. The individual AP and/or college courses the six colleges/universities offer are listed below (individual bullets indicate one specific institution’s responses):

§         General Psychology; any lower division college class on the college campus

§         Pre-calculus; college writing

§         Freshmen level courses with the exception of P.E. activity courses and music courses (individualized)

§         All freshman and sophomore classes

§         English (college writing); geology

§         Any 100-level general ed class; occasional 200-level classes; advanced math classes after meeting prerequisites

Colleges/universities were asked to explain their process of accepting credit for AP classes from academies. Here are the responses from the six respondents who either contract with qualified academy instructors to teach AP courses, or who offer college courses to students on the college campus:

§         If they are official “AP” classes we will accept them. Otherwise, only college credits

§         Accepting AP credits used to attract seniors to our college

§         Students must enroll as (specific institution name) student in order for credit to count

§         University grants credit for AP courses with a score of 3, 4, or 5; transcript will indicate that credits accepted have been completed by examination…AP credit will be recorded only after 12 hours of current (specific institution name) course work.

§         They send us the info; we transcript it.

§         College credit is granted to students w/ AP scores of 3 or higher, except English. To receive English credit, students must score a 5.

Respondents were asked how reimbursement for classes were handled if visiting college professors taught some advanced placement classes at some academies. Only one respondent felt this question applied to their college/university’s situation, and answered that teachers were paid “on a contract teacher basis, according to our policy.”

Three of the nine college/university respondents replied “no” to the initial question of whether they offered AP classes to high school students. Two of these respondents also answered “no” to the question, “Have you considered offering advanced placement classes for academy junior or junior and senior students?” One respondent said they had considered offering advanced placement classes, and had also offered these classes in the past (at Auburn Academy in Tacoma, WA). Two of these two institutions was aware of dual enrollment/dual credit programs in their state; the other respondent did not answer that question. One of these two colleges/universities did accept credits from public dual enrollment/dual credit programs, and the other did not.

Of the six colleges/universities that did offer AP or other courses to academy junior or seniors, three were aware of dual enrollment/dual credit programs in their states, two were unaware of such programs, and one did not respond to that question. The question was asked if the institution would accept any credits from public dual enrollment/dual credit programs. Of all nine respondents, one answered no, six answered yes (if the credit was a college credit), and two did not answer that question.

The respondents were asked if their institution offered general education college classes to high school juniors and/or seniors. Seven out of nine respondents said “yes,” and listed the following courses as those offered:

§         English, Math, History, Psychology, Religion, Human Communications (Most 100-level courses are available if the student can attend classes on campus)

§         Freshman Composition I at two academies

§         All GE (general education) classes are open to local seniors who get special permission under our arrangements with local schools

§         All classes

§         Freshman comp. 1 & 2, Life Science, Math 101, History, Psychology 101, Art Appreciation, Music Appreciation

§         College writing, pre-calculus

§         Any lower division course (on this campus only – subject to recommendation and GPA)

The last research questions dealt with distance learning. Here the respondents’ answers and opinions differed widely, from offering a number of classes and being fairly positive about the potentials for learning through distance learning, to offering no distance learning and expressing ambivalent or negative feelings about distance learning. Eight out of nine respondents said their college/university offered distance learning courses (see appendix for complete listing). However, when asked, “What benefits do you see in offering general education classes through distance education?” the respondents had the following comments (comments here are numbered and correlate with comments in the next paragraph regarding drawbacks of distance education):

1.      Very, very few. The personal contact is so important!

2.      Allows the student to accelerate his/her program

3.      Not many

4.      Generating additional income

5.      Supply/demand for these courses are such that more students would have access

6.      (No comment)

7.      Provides students opportunity to complete courses without having to physically attend class. Students may want to get a jumpstart on college, finish sooner, or just take a lighter load while on campus, then take courses during he summer while at home.

8.      Reaching students who don’t have local access to an SDA school; working with gifted students.

9.      Broader geographic reach; allows college influence at secondary level; allows exclusive program to small number of students unable to access it in other ways.

The next question was similar but opposite: “What drawbacks do you see for offering general education classes through distance education?” Here are the respondents’ comments (correlated with the numbered comments above):

1.      (No comment: answer to previous question was really an answer to the “drawbacks” question)

2.      Lack of socialization, cultural benefits of the college campus may not be available

3.      For academy students – lack of discipline and help

4.      (No comment)

5.      Volume of demand calls for acquiring teachers in the general education curriculum

6.      The lack of students learning the values of general education subjects. There is a serious decline in students’ ability to think and converse across discipline borders

7.      Motivating students to finish the class (especially if it is totally asynchronous with no start/end date). It may be difficult to engage a student in the learning environment and they may not feel a sense of community. This too may lead to lack of persistence.

8.      Loses the interpersonal touch of face-to-face. Finding capable, qualified teachers. Oversight of course quality = more workload.

9.      Cost of implementing courses; motivating college teachers to think creatively about course creation and content integration.

These thoughts and attitudes are significant for the purpose of this study and the recommendations that will be made. Reference will be made to them in subsequent pages.

            The last question for the college/university respondents was regarding the support their institution gives for the development of distance education courses. Again, the numbered comments correlate to the previous two paragraphs:

1.      (No comment)

2.      We have in the past paid for course development. As of now, funds are exhausted, and we no longer pay for course development

3.      Full time director and software platform

4.      (No comment)

5.      College is partnering with ADEC (Adventist Distance Education Consortium, www.adventistedu.org) as initial step into this program

6.      It supports BlackBoard online educational software

7.      Training for BlackBoard; encouragement to attend seminars, workshops, and take courses related to on-line learning course development (currently, we have not given release time for course development)

8.      Course development stipends, conferences, part time support person, tech support.

9.      Course development incentive of $500 per student credit hour for creation of new online course.

Summary of AP/dual enrollment/dual credit programs in Adventist Colleges

The responses of the colleges/universities to the questions about AP courses and dual enrollment indicate a significant understanding and acceptance of the concept behind accepting dual credit. The respondents had procedures in place to accept these credits, and no negative connotations were perceived. The respondents’ answers to questions regarding distance learning, however, indicated some significant hesitance about the use and benefit of this type of educational instruction. The research questionnaire was not designed to probe these feelings further, but additional research would answer the questions of why the respondents answered in a neutral to somewhat negative manner overall.

Adventist academies current practices in dual enrollment/dual credit

            Questionnaires were sent to 93 Adventist academies in the United States. Seventy-four percent of the questionnaires (69) were completed and returned. The first question on the questionnaire was the following: “Does your academy currently offer any advanced placement classes for high school students?” Just over half (53%) of the respondents said no. (See figure 3.)

 

Figure 3

Of the 37 respondents who said they did NOT currently offer AP classes, 86% (32) said they have considered offering such classes.  Several respondents added pertinent and helpful information that indicated why they did not currently offer AP classes but had considered doing so. One respondent said, “We do not have teachers with free periods to take an additional class.” Another respondent added that they were considering offering AP classes, but had not “found the financed yet.” “Not enough staff,” and “Funds are needed for their training” was the response from yet another respondent. One school noted that it is considering offering AP classes two years in the future. Another significant comment was the following: “Our teachers feel it is in the best interest of the students to offer honors classes instead of AP classes.” Still another respondent added to these sentiments by saying “Our teachers are opposed to AP classes because they teach to a test. We have our students take our regular broad foundations or honors classes and then take the AP test at a local high school…Our students pass the AP tests but still get the broad foundation of classes that go ‘beyond’ teaching to a test!” Another academy, located near an Adventist college, reported that they are enrolling in the College Board AP program for next year. “Our juniors and seniors are able to take college classes, GPA requirements permitting, at Union College,” they reported. “That took the place of our own AP program for years. Next year, we will offer both.” One respondent commented that they have arranged with Walla Walla College to teach four classes in a dual enrollment situation. Perhaps the most significant comment (for the purpose of this study) in this section by any respondent was one who said the following: “We do dual enrollment with a local community college.”

Only five of the 37 respondents who said they did not currently offer AP classes indicated that they were not considering offering such classes. While no explanation was either asked for nor given for the reasons why the academy is not considering offering AP classes, it could be assumed based on the answers to other questions that funding and staffing are two of the primary reasons for not considering offering AP classes presently or in the future.

            From the responses to this particular question on the questionnaire, a significant pattern can be seen. A significant percentage of academies that currently do NOT offer AP courses have considered doing so. The reasons given, if any, for not teaching those classes relate chiefly to finances and staffing. Some academies located close in proximity to Adventist colleges have arranged for their students to dual enroll, but one academy has resorted to a dual enrollment situation at a local community college. While the questionnaire does not ask the reason for this arrangement, nor does the respondent give the reason, it is logical to assume that this academy is not located geographically near any Adventist college so no such arrangement can be made with a faith-based institution to offer dual enrollment. Currently no dual enrollment programs are available to Adventist academy students who wish to take distinctly Adventist college level courses (with the exception of Griggs University courses) when the students’ local academy does not offer AP classes or the academy is not located near an Adventist college/university.

A large percentage of the respondents who reported that they have considered offering AP classes also reported that they had not offered such classes in the past. Twenty-six of the 37 respondents indicated they had not offered AP courses in the past, as opposed to only eleven who had. Interestingly enough, one respondent indicated they had offered AP courses in the past, but were not considering doing so now. No explanation was given for this comment. (See figure 4.)

 

Figure 4

    

 

Thirty-two of the total respondents (46%) answered “yes” to the first question, “Does your academy currently offer any advanced placement classes for high school students?” When asked to identify any eligibility requirements, respondents’ answers varied significantly. All but one of the 32 academies that offer AP courses identified some sort of eligibility requirements. Seventeen of the 32 had GPA requirements. Of these 17, 11 academies required a GPA of 3.0 or better in order for students to take AP classes. one academy required an overall GPA of 3.0, but a GPA of 3.5 or better in the subject area of the AP class. One academy required a 3.3 overall GPA, and four academies required a 3.5 or better GPA in order for students to enroll in AP classes. (See figure 5.)

 

Figure 5

 

 

            Fourteen of the 32 academies that offer AP courses allow both juniors and seniors to enroll. Of these 14 academies, 11 have additional eligibility requirements such as minimum GPA, invitation by instructor, or passing prerequisite classes with a minimum grade (usually an A). One academy also allows sophomores to enroll in AP World History.  Ten of the academies allow only seniors to enroll in AP classes. Of these 10, three mention additional requirements, such as having a B or higher in English III as well as the teacher recommendation; applying for the class by writing an essay and securing a recommendation from a teacher in the same discipline; minimum GPA; and demonstrating ability to handle the extra challenge. Of the remaining eight academies that offer AP courses but do not have any age restrictions (junior or junior and seniors), two have minimum GPA and other prerequisites (classes, recommendation of instructor), one has minimum GPA only, three have other prerequisites (classes, recommendation of instructor), and two have no requirements listed, one of which noted: “AP classes are open to all high school students – no GPA or age requirements.” (See figure 6.)

 

Figure 6

         

 

Respondents listed all AP courses offered at their schools. The most popular single AP course is calculus, with 11 academies offering this class (one academy offers it online due to low enrollment). A number of AP English classes are offered at various academies, including English (9), English IV (Literature) (3), English Language and Composition (5), English Literature and Composition (5), and English Composition 101 and 102 (2, one of which is taught by visiting college professors). US/American History (7), Politics/American Government (4), and World History (1) are the AP history classes offered. (For a complete listing, see the appendix “Compiled AP Course List.”)

The questionnaire asked respondents to note their process for conferring credit for AP classes. Five of the 32 academies that offer AP (and in some cases dual credit) classes did not answer that question. The other 27 had varying answers, most notably either using the five point AP scale or granting the usual high school credit. (For a complete listing of responses, see appendix “Process for conferring credit.”) Only two of the 32 academies that offer AP and/or dual enrollment classes reported that visiting college professors taught the class(es). In one case, the academy reported that the students were charged extra for these classes, and in the other case, the students paid directly to the visiting college for the class(es).

One final statistic of note from the survey of Adventist academies is the awareness of public dual enrollment/dual credit programs. Of the 37 academies who reported no AP classes being offered on their campuses, 27 were aware of other dual enrollment/dual credit programs; 10 were unaware of such programs. Of the 32 academies that reported offering AP courses, 20 were aware of other dual enrollment/dual credit programs; eight were unaware of such programs, and four gave no answer. Overall, 47 respondents, or 68%, were aware of other dual enrollment/dual credit programs.

Summary of AP/dual enrollment/dual credit in Adventist Academies

The Adventist academies surveyed were very responsive to the research questionnaire, with 74% completing and returning the survey instrument. Almost all questionnaires were completely filled out, and many respondents added interesting and helpful comments about AP courses at their academy. Close to half of all responding academies indicated that they are offering one or more AP classes, or have visiting college professors teaching advanced, dual enrollment/dual credit classes on their campuses. Almost all academies that are currently not offering AP classes are considering doing so. Teacher load and finances are some of the issues preventing more academies from offering AP classes. It could possibly be inferred that less than half of our Adventist young people have access to advanced classes at our Adventist schools. However, because enrollment figures were not included in the questionnaire, and because there is a higher likelihood of larger enrollments at academies near Adventist colleges/universities where academy students are often able to enroll in college classes, it is more likely that more than half of our Adventist students have access to advanced classes as academy juniors or seniors. Additional questions and research could ascertain these facts more accurately. However, it is safe to say that Adventist education has room to make significant strides in offering advanced academy students an opportunity to accelerate their learning in a faith-based setting.

Current trends in enrollment of Adventist junior and senior high school students

In order to partially answer the research question, “What are the perceptions of need for such programs within Adventist education?” questionnaires were sent to 96 churches in the North Pacific Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventist. Churches were selected randomly based on membership and location in order for the sample to be as representative of the Adventist population of the northwest as possible. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively.

 

Figure 8


Membership range

Percent/number of churches of this size in the NPUC (Total # of churches: 466)

Percent/number of churches this size who received questionnaires

Percent/number of churches returning questionnaires

400 +

12.0%

56

10.4%

10

10.0%

1

200-399

18.0%

84

16.7%

16

25.0%

4

100-199

26.2%

122

21.9%

21

23.8%

6

0-99

43.8%

204

51.0%

49

36.7%

18

Total

100.0%

466

20.6%

96

30.2%

29

 

           

The intent of the church questionnaire was to discover, as best as possible, trends in school attendance for Adventist students in the northwest, and to determine how many Adventist students are currently taking advantage of public dual enrollment/dual credit programs. The questionnaire was returned by 29 churches, or 30.2%. In this questionnaire, church clerks were asked to identify where each high school student and freshman college student had attended school from their high school freshman year through their freshman year of college. For larger churches with a large number of high school students, this was a big task. It follows, then, that the smallest percentage of completed questionnaires were returned from the largest churches.

            In the largest church that responded (the only church from the 400+ membership category with a reported membership of 476), 27 out of 47 students total were reported to have attended public school at least one of their high school years. Nineteen of 47 attended the local 10 grade school for at least one year, and eight of 47 attended the boarding academy for at least one year. Seven of the 47 students attended home school at least one year, and no students attended school in the “other” category (other Christian schools, distance education, etc.). Additionally, no students were reported as being enrolled in a local community college dual enrollment program. (See figure 9.)

 

 

Churches with membership of 400+

Figure 9

            In the next category of churches (membership of 200-399), there were four respondents. The total reported membership for these four churches was 1275, for an average membership of approximately 319. Of these members, 79 were reported to be of high school age. Forty-one of the 79 students attended public school at least one year; 12 attended the local 10 or 12 grade school at least one year, and 12 attended the boarding academy at least one year. Seven attended homeschool one or more years, three attended school in the “other” category, and one student was enrolled in a local community college dual enrollment program. (See figure 10.)

 

Churches with memberships of 200-399

Figure 10

           

In the six responding churches with memberships of 100-199, the total membership represented was 897, which is an average membership of approximately 150. The total number of high school students reported in this group was 64. Of that number, 30 had attended public school at least one year, 18 had attended the local 10 or 12 grade school at least one year, 19 had attended the boarding academy, six had been homeschooled, three had attended a school in the “other” category, and two had attended a local community college dual enrollment program. (See figure 11.)

 

Churches with memberships of 100-199

Figure 11

           

The largest number of respondents came from churches with the smallest memberships, which given the size of the questionnaire respective to their church membership would have been expected. The 18 churches responding with memberships of 1-99 represented a total of 949 members and an average of approximately 53 members. The total number of high school students reported in this group was 73. Of that number, 28 had attended public school at least one year, six had attended a local 10 or 12 grade school, 41 had attended the boarding academy, 21 had been homeschooled, and three attended in the “other” category.  (See figure 12.)

 

Churches with memberships of 1-99

Figure 12

           

All of the charts in this section represent numbers and percentages of students attending public, Adventist, and other schools AT LEAST ONE YEAR (or in a few cases, part of a year). Some students attended home school one year, public school another year, and boarding academy yet another year. The total figures do not then necessarily add up to the number of students, but rather give us ideas of trends in high school attendance among Adventist students in the northwest.

 

 

Figure 13

Summary of church questionnaire responses

 

            The response rate of the church questionnaires was considerably lower than that of either the college/university or the academy questionnaires. As has been mentioned, the reason for this low rate of response is likely due to the length of the questionnaire relative to the size of the congregation and number of high school aged students. The number of college-aged students reported was very low and did not contribute significantly to the scope of this study, so those figures were not reported.

An observation in regards to the church surveys is that the larger churches, while they may have more access to Adventist education at the high school level, nevertheless have a greater percentage of students who attend the public schools at least one year. Some of these students go on to attend boarding academy as juniors or seniors, but do not attend the local 10 grade junior academy for their freshman and sophomore years.    

The number of students reported who had attended high school at least one year was higher than I expected. The boarding school percentage was as strong as it was in large part because of the seemingly passionate commitment of members from the smallest churches to Adventist education. The percentage of public school attendance in this group of churches was also significantly lower than that in the other two groups of churches–both of which approached or surpassed 50%. This could be due to conservatism in smaller churches, less availability of quality public schools, fewer local 10 or 12 grade schools, or many other factors. Further research would be needed to ascertain the reasons for this disparity.

            Conversely, the number of students reported who were involved in dual enrollment programs was less than I expected. The town of Colville, WA, with a church membership of approximately 250 and approximately 13 academy-aged youth at any given time, has seen six or more Adventist high school students take advantage of the local community college’s Running Start program in the last several years. There are several potential answers to this lack of reported involvement in dual enrollment programs in the northwest. First, if only 68% of the respondents to the academy questionnaire were aware of other dual enrollment options, it is feasible that the local church would not be aware of similar options. Related to this possibility is the idea that a number of the junior and senior high school students reported on the questionnaire as attending the local public school could in actuality be enrolled at the community college in a dual enrollment program and the church family is simply not aware of the specifics of their enrollment. If, as has been discussed earlier in the paper, 10% of Washington’s juniors and seniors are enrolled in the Running Start program, it could be extrapolated that perhaps as high as 5-10% of Adventist juniors and seniors are participating in this program as well. It certainly is true, based on data collected from the churches, that a high percentage of Adventist youth are attending public schools rather than Adventist education. If, for instance, 5% of Adventist juniors and seniors in the northwest were involved in dual enrollment, and if approximately half of the students noted in the church questionnaires were juniors and seniors, then it would follow that approximately 11 students would be involved in dual enrollment programs rather than the three reported in the questionnaires. However, with enrollment at Adventist junior and senior academies decreasing nationwide, significant thought should be given to the rise of enrollment in public dual enrollment/dual credit programs, especially in light of the large percentage of Adventist high school students attending public school rather than Adventist educational institutions in the northwest, based on the results of the returned questionnaires.

Current Felt Needs for Academically Challenging Coursework

             In order to ascertain felts needs for a faith-based Adventist dual enrollment program and complete the answer to the research question, “What are the perceptions of need for such programs within Adventist education?” two focus groups were conducted. The first focus group took place at a small primarily boarding academy, on March 10, 2004. The second focus group took place at a larger, primarily day academy, on April 8, 2004. Both focus groups lasted approximately 90 minutes.

Focus Group 1: Small Boarding Academy

Five parents (two males, three females) of academically superior students joined me at the small academy for the first focus group. Of these five participants, one had completed high school, two had completed college, and two had completed postgraduate school. Additionally, all five participants had attended Adventist schools for all of their high school education. All five also indicated they had attended Adventist schools for part or all of their college education as well. The two participants who had completed postgraduate work reported attending some or all of the time in an Adventist educational system. All of the participants had at least one child in college, and two of the participants had a child in academy as well. None of the five participants reported having any students in elementary school or postgraduate school. This information signals a significant commitment to Adventist education within the members of this focus group. (Note: in order to maintain confidentiality, genders of respondents will be identified randomly and not necessarily by the actual gender of the participant making the particular statement.)

            The small academy is a private Adventist high school situated in the middle of a state with a minimal concentration of Adventists (3,500 members) and a small population overall. Predictably, the enrollment at the academy is low (78 students) and finances are understandably troublesome. No advanced placement courses are currently offered at the small academy.

            Participants were first asked if they were aware of dual enrollment options at community colleges in many states. While several participants indicated a knowledge of advances placement options in other high schools, there seemed to be a lack of awareness of dual enrollment programs either in their state or in other states. Said one participants, “I didn’t know that junior colleges offered [dual enrollment/dual credit classes].” As we discussed ideas related to both dual enrollment/dual credit and advanced placement courses, several themes began to emerge. The main themes of the focus group, related to dual enrollment/dual credit possibilities, were:

§         Financial benefits to students potential financial/enrollment benefits to school

§         Academic benefits to students

§         Versatility of credit for students

§         Educational concerns with face-to-face teachers losing bright students

§         Distance learning component: pros and cons

§         Financial/enrollment loss to school

Several participants discussed the possibilities of a dual enrollment/dual credit program being financially advantageous to students and their parents who pay the bills. Most of these comments had to do with the pricing structure of the dual enrollment/dual credit classes at the college level. “They [the college] could some way look at partially financially underwriting [the courses] as a whole pack, realizing that they have a chance of getting any one of these students coming to their school and then giving a little bit of financial incentive to encourage that kid to go to that school initially. Underwriting it at the high school level would be a lot easier for kids in rural [their state] to participate.” Another participant added to that thought process: “Maybe they can look at doing some kind of scholarship, GPA scholarship, or something like that.”

There seemed to be a general consensus that there would be a financial benefit to the students, but only if the college(s) could work out an attractive formula for tuition costs.

Another potential financial benefit that was mentioned briefly was the possibility of picking up a few additional students because dual enrollment/dual credit options were offered at the small boarding academy. “[This would be better] if you could demonstrate that it might pull two of three more students into that school that offset the losses of the tuition of the classes they’re not taking.” It might be the turning point for somebody who isn’t quite sure about sending their child here as a junior. If we had a program in place where they could also do some of their college credit at the same time, there might be some people in distant places in [our state] who would make the decision to go ahead and send them here if that was another drawing card,” to which another participant added, “So [tuition and enrollment] might even out.” A participant noted the potential impact on the school if they did NOT participate in a dual enrollment/dual credit option: “If it’s available and they’re trying to decide between here and three or four other boarding schools that are within a [reasonable distance] and it’s not offered [here], then you might lose people.”

 

 

The second area of positive feedback about a dual enrollment/dual credit program was in the area of academic benefits to the students. The focus group participants were by design parents of academically superior students who either would have or could benefit from such programs. Several statements from participants pointed to either their students or other academy students being able to benefit academically from dual enrollment/dual credit programs: “We have some really bright students here that could maybe benefit by one or two of them going into this program”; “I see [reaching those who don’t send their kids here because advanced placement classes that are taught in the local high school and various places in their communities] as probably the most valuable thing in all this program is to those groups of people and to the occasionally extremely bored student who is not doing much now.” This participant that acknowledged that all of his kids would have been in this group of students who would have benefited from dual enrollment/dual credit programs. One participant noted what I found in the literature about the success of dual enrollment/dual credit programs in preparing students for college: “I think that the really important stuff is that these kids with one or two [dual enrollment/dual credit] classes per quarter starting out will have a pretty good idea of what college is like because they are at a different level of commitment. I think that is one of the more important things you could learn before you get to college.”

The participants in the first focus group also noted interest in ensuring that the credit earned in any dual enrollment/dual credit classes would be versatile. In other words, it should be able to transfer to any other college if the student chose to enroll elsewhere at any time. “Yes, I think that the important thing [is that] it would be versatile where you could go from college to college with [the credits]. If the credit would not be recognized by Pacific Union College or Southwesterrn or Andrews University, that’s not going to work. I wouldn’t want my kid bothering with it. But if [the credit] was something that could be transferred even to an in-state college, I would be real interested in that. It has to be versatile,” shared one participant. There was agreement indicated from other participants at this statement.

While significant interest was expressed in having the small boarding academy participate in a dual enrollment/dual credit program, several areas of concern were discussed as well. One of the participants was a teacher at the school, and comments from other participants indicated that this teacher’s class was of a very high caliber. Comments were made the indicated strong support for this teacher and a desire to have students take her class. “I would hate to see the kids miss [the classes she teaches]. That would be a really tough decision to make with my child even though I know it would help him to get college credits [if he took these classes through dual enrollment/dual credit.” A further support of face-to-face classes was also a show of support for the teacher present. “You take the brightest students out of the classes that sometimes add the most to the classes. [These students] add so much to the rest of her class and really help inspire her to be a teacher on campus. I would just hate to see the top five or six kids removed from her class.”

The comments about protecting and supporting the quality teachers on campuses, however, was followed by additional comments that demonstrated a willingness to think of ways to incorporate good face-to-face teaching with dual enrollment/dual credit utilizing distance education. (Because of the proximity of Adventist institutions of higher learning to most Adventist young people in America, a majority of Adventist high school students who would be eligible for and/or interested in Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit courses would have to take them utilizing distance education.) One participant suggested that we combine a distance education class with face-to-face instruction: “They [could be] in the class and then [take] extra stuff home on the computer to maybe qualify as a credit class,” suggested one participant. “Yeah,” added another, “if there was some way to combine the resources of what you have on campus…[we would not have] to waste those resources.” The distance learning aspect that was discussed as a means of distributing the Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit courses was discussed with reservation by the participants. “If you say these are distance learning classes that my child would be in I’m not sure that I’m quite as excited about it as if it is a class on campus that is being taught. When they are in with the group here, [they’re] interactive with the kids that they’re going to school with.” Another participant responded with, “With distance learning, it is kind of a difficult thing to integrate the kids into the class. We tried to do a Spanish I and II class like that and [it was] difficult,” even when “we tried to have the kids meet the class at the same time so they were interacting with kids all over the state.” One member of the focus group had taken a distance learning class recently and reported that it was “a very frustrating experience for me.” However, there was positive feedback about using distance learning as the medium for distributing Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit courses. One participant noted that using distance learning for these classes could enable students to stay on academy campuses and continue to contribute to the school as a whole. “If the distance learning can involve integrating students into the classroom that is already on campus...that would be the ideal situation.” One participant had a final suggestion for those who may be planning the types of courses to offer for dual enrollment/dual credit: “Remember that everybody learns differently, so that if you can incorporate visual learning by hearing and actual tactile learning, that’s going to help students a lot more than if it’s all visual; there are people who don’t learn very well visually.”

Chief among the concerns expressed by participants was potential financial loss for the school. From the comments given, it was evident that these participants were very loyal supporters of the small academy. One participant said the following: “I think finance is going to be your most difficult task and I’ll tell you why. Sixty to seventy percent of our students currently get worthy student funds. If they have to pay full tuition to go to our school and additional tuition for advanced placement, [the college offering the dual enrollment program]…is going to have to be real creative and figure out ways of financing it so it’s not a huge impact. I’m on the Academy Operating Board, the K-12 Board, and also the [Union Conference] K-12 board, and I can tell you right now, [financing is] going to be really the crux of the matter here.” The issue of finances at the academy surfaced several times throughout the session. Another participant added, “I’m looking at a deficit in our budget. I know all the other boarding academies, or most of them across America, are looking at the same thing. They’re going to have a tough time giving up their tuition.” “They can’t afford to not charge as much,” added another participant, and still another said,” That’s where you are going to meet your greatest resistance. [The finances] are something that needs to be very creative – that, along with the college credit that comes as part of the package.” Later in the session, a participant said he saw real danger in opening dual enrollment/dual credit options up to juniors and seniors, “especially in [our state],” and stated that he saw that as a drain to their academy. He went on to discuss the family atmosphere that exists on the small academy campus, and said that if dual enrollment/dual credit students were allowed to participate in the classes via distance learning and were only on camps for short periods of time, if at all (as we had been discussing as an option), he “would see that more as being disruptive to campus life. The campus here is a family and the family operates best when we’re all living together.” A participant summed up the feelings of the group when she stated, “The school cannot afford the loss of three kids to (the dual enrollment/dual credit] program, so I think that is some of the reason that the feedback you’re getting here is that we can’t afford to go the other way.”

While both positive and negative comments were made regarding all aspects of Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit, the final comments were encouraging: “I think you’re on the right track. I definitely think that this is something that’s out there and it’s becoming more readily available. If our education system doesn’t get involved, we’re going to be left behind and we’re going to be losing people.”

Focus Group 2: Large Day Academy

Nine parents (four males, five females) of academically superior students joined me on the campus of the large academy for the second focus group. Of these nine participants, two had completed high school, three had completed college, and four had completed some postgraduate training. Three participants reported having attended no Adventist education themselves; no participant reported completing all of their education in the Adventist school system. Five participants reported having attended Adventist schools for all of their high school years, and three of these participants also attended all of their college years in Adventist education. All of the participants currently have at least one child in high school, and three participants have one child in college as well. Four participants additionally have children in grades K-8.

The large academy is a day-academy serving a large valley. Students from this valley area as well as from an adjoining state attend this academy. Its enrollment is currently 279. The large academy is located approximately two blocks from an Adventist college campus. The valley area where the large academy is located has a high concentration of Adventists, as does the Conference in general (23,200 members). The population of the state in general (6,068,996), and the valley in specific (37,504) where the large academy is located, is much greater that that in the state in general (909,453) and in the city in specific (27,509) where the small academy is located. Correspondingly, it is not surprising that enrollment at large day academy is high compared to that at the small boarding academy.

The atmosphere during the second focus group was significantly different than the first focus group. While in the first focus group the parents were understandably concerned about enrollment at their own academy, the issue of losing students to a distance-learning based dual enrollment/dual credit program never came up at all. The large academy currently has several AP courses that it offers, and a few (seven-eight FTE) senior students can attend classes on the campus of the nearby Adventist college. The large academy’s enrollment has remained stable through the years and therefore the issue of finances for the academy itself was never mentioned. The issues discussed did not focus on any particular area, as they had in the first focus group, but were rather more broad-based questions, comments, suggestions, and words of encouragement.

While the state where the large academy is located has a very strong dual enrollment/dual credit program, the participants could only think of one student who had participated in this program, and “she wanted to come back and graduate with her class, so she didn’t do all of the second year there.” For these participants, the reasons they noted for the necessity of dual enrollment/dual credit courses were focused much more on academic benefits than on financial benefits, although the latter was mentioned as a strong incentive for participation. “Education s really expensive,” said one participant. “There are many things our kids in academy can be involved in where they don’t have to be taking credits. There are lots of different opportunities they can do. So, the bottom line for me is if they can save a lot of money. It’s expensive to put kids through school so the freer it is I think the better this program will catch on. If it’s going to be just a little nickel-dime type stuff, to me I don’t think it’s worth it.” He continued: “If a student can really benefit by the academic performance allowing them to have less cost, I see that as a real benefit.”

Related to the financial issue were some suggestions from participants as to how the colleges could make these dual enrollment/dual credit classes more available. We had just discussed the option of students taking the “Ability to Benefit” test, a federal standardized test that assesses whether a student who had not completed high school or did not have their GED would benefit from enrolling in and taking a college level course. Taking and passing this test allows students to qualify for federal grants and scholarships, thereby making college level courses through the Adventist dual enrollment/dual program more affordable. “I want to address the piece of having grants,” said one participant. “There are a lot of people here in this valley who may not be eligible for a grant who might want to send their child to the college as part of this program, so I think it might be better if it’s somehow incorporated into the academy program where you didn’t have to pay just regular college tuition.” Another participant, a faculty at the college, referred to a document in her hands that was to be presented that day at the college faculty senate, but time did not allow for its presentation. She mentioned that the college was looking at a substantial decrease in tuition for dual enrollment/dual credit classes, being called Adventist LEAP (Leading Edge Accelerated Program), and working with the academies and their tuition structure. Additional comments related to finances included questions about whether the colleges had the money and personnel to support the academies. “It’s going to cost them some money, perhaps; it’s a financial issue. But obviously if they can hook these students early…you’re not going to lose them to the other areas around.”

Several comments from the participants focused on the academic benefits of an Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit program. One participant noted that many of the students from the elementary school associated with the large academy “have been doing academy work while they’re at [the elementary school], and it just seems very natural to carry that on. What are they going to do? They’re going to run in to a dead end about when they’re a sophomore or junior.” “Math is a real issue right now,” added another participant. “A lot of the 8th graders have algebra and geometry under their belts before they come [to the large academy]. So by your freshman year you take Algebra 2, sophomore year you do pre-calculus, advanced data. They hit this roadblock right after they’re a sophomore and they say, ‘Now what do I do?’” This situation causes an additional problem mentioned by the participants. Some juniors and seniors run into problems when taking their SAT’s. As one participant put it, “Some of these students who are taking SAT’s – some of these students who are very bright – haven’t had a math class for two years,” to which a participant replied, “I know with my son, he’ll be pretty much out of math classes after this year (his sophomore year).”

Participants also discussed the ability of a dual enrollment/dual credit program to prepare and encourage students to attend college, as did the participants in the first focus group. Said one participant from the second focus group, “I think they would find that they would be able to do those [college] classes. ‘I can do this. I can do college level work. What a motivating factors that is, and I have college credits.’” “The sooner they can get into being able to continue their education, the more time they have to make a decision and the more information they have,” added one participant after talking about how students don’t always end up doing that they came to do in college.

One area that the participants discussed was related to students attending the local community colleges, whether it be for regular college courses or dual enrollment courses with Running Start. A participant relayed his own experience in the community college where he engaged in some “interesting discussions that took place there. I’m not sure it’s appropriate for a freshman to engage in those soul-searching arguments with the lit teacher at 10 o’clock at night. I think there are some positive things that come out of that sometimes. I think that there are some risks perhaps.” Another participant responded with, “I think you’re right. Not every freshman student is in a position to maybe do that and feel comfortable with that and be successful with that.”

Perhaps the strongest statements in this focus group came from parents wanting to have their students stay involved with their classmates on the local academy campus. “I was just talking to [my son] earlier today. I cautioned him. I think his senior year at academy is a very special time. I would encourage him to maybe take a class over [at the college], but I really encouraged him not to skip his senior year here.” She continued to relate her own experience as a student at the large academy when friends of hers were involved in a lot of things outside the school, which was neat, she said, “but yet they couldn’t go on class trips. They found out that they just weren’t participating with their class that last senior year. I think some might look back and say, ‘I wish I had hung with that group I graduated with a little bit more.’” Another participant added to that thought: “I talked to a young lady from my class last year who felt the same way. She was out at a half-day college and half here and she just didn’t feel connected.”

The second focus group spent very little time discussing the distance education component of the Adventist LEAP courses currently being proposed and discussed during this meeting. “If [the course] is online, your staff wouldn’t restrict what classes would be offered since it would be over the Internet,” one participant commented. There was a general sense from the discussion that using distance education to distribute these courses would make them versatile and allow students to work them into their current schedule at the academy, thereby enabling them to stay on campus and connected to their classmates, an issue of concern with this focus group.

One participant summarized what many had been saying when he said, “We lose a lot of bright students to other kinds of programs. The college likes those students.  We lose them to a lot of different places.” During the closing minutes, he added, “From a church standpoint we do lose a lot of the bright kids. We lose them to public school situations, public university situations, and then we lose them altogether. I think we’re looking at trying to keep them and tie them in. Our church needs that.”

Summary of Focus Groups

The first focus group had a wide variety of questions and concerns about an Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit program. Their fear of losing students to this program was significant and realistic. Their enrollment is such that they cannot afford to lose even a handful of students, and while they realized that they might gain some students if they participated in this program, their passion for and commitment to Small academy and its future made them cautious about the program overall. They could, however, see several benefits to participating in dual enrollment/dual credit programs and seemed interested in knowing more about how they will work, especially as related to the finances. Two of the five participants requested a copy of this study when it was completed.

The second focus group spent a considerable amount of time asking questions about how far along WWC was in actually implementing Adventist LEAP. Most comments from participants were positive and encouraging.  They could see financial and academic benefits, and did not seem to be less interested in the program because of its reliance on distance education as the means of distributing the courses. Because THE LARGE ACADEMY is not in danger of closing its doors if a handful of students were to go elsewhere for their education, and perhaps more importantly, because THE LARGE ACADEMY already offers some college-early type programs, the tenor of this session was noticeably different from the one in the first focus group.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Dual enrollment programs are widespread and have been proven to be beneficial for students. All 50 states have some form of dual enrollment. These programs are being used in many states as a way to encourage high school students to continue their education at the college level, something that is becoming more and more necessary to success. These programs can be instrumental in alleviating a condition identified as “Senior Slump.” Students in most dual enrollment programs attend classes on a community college campus, but some private schools also offer these courses, and some programs utilize distance education as the medium for distributing the courses.

Adventist colleges and universities are open to the idea of granting dual credit for some classes and are quite familiar with the AP courses offered at many academies. There appear to be no significant negative feelings toward granting dual credit, but colleges and universities are more resistant to distance education courses. Adventist academies offer limited options for dual enrollment in the form of AP courses for the most part, and only slightly over half of the academies responding to the survey offered these courses. Most academies that do not currently offer AP courses were considering offering them in the future.

A high percentage of Adventist students are currently attending schools other than Adventist schools, the largest percentage of this number attending public education. No significant numbers of Adventist students were identified as attending local dual enrollment/dual credit programs, perhaps because such students are enrolled in them without the knowledge of the local church clerk who was reporting school attendance among church members. 

While the church clerk surveys did not indicate that Adventist education is losing significant numbers of students to dual enrollment/dual credit programs, the focus groups, particularly the second group, indicated a significant need for Adventist education to offer faith-based dual enrollment/dual credit options. Significant questions about Adventist dual enrollment/dual credit programs are present, but can be answered with time, careful listening, and thoughtful planning. Because public education is far ahead of Adventist education in terms of implementing dual enrollment/dual credit programs, as well as in utilizing distance education for these (and other) college level courses, dual enrollment/dual credit programs should be developed in order to offer Adventism’s bright young minds an opportunity to advance their learning in the faith-based setting we value so much.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References

Andrews, H. (2000). The Dual-Credit Explosion in Illinois Community Colleges. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ibhe.state.il.us/CPDC/PDF/2001/0108Dual-CrResearch%20BriefIL.pdf.

Bailey, T., & Karp, M. (2003). Promoting College Access and Success: A Review of Credit-Based Transition Programs. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/crdbase.doc.

Catron, R. (1998). The Virginia Plan for Dual Enrollment: A Historical Perspective. Inquiry. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web; http://www.vccaedu.org/inquiry/inquiry-spring98/i21catro.html

Center for Distance Education, Northwestern Colleges. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://nwc.edu/distance/programs/

Cleveland, D. 2002. Out of the Blocks: Hawaii’s Running Start Program. Retrieved April 30, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/hcc_research/RS.pdf.

Cleveland, D. Maslowski, J. 2002. The Second Lap / HCC’S Running Start Program: Second Year Evaluation. Retrieved April 30, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/hcc_research/secondlap.htm.

College Early Start Program, College Credit Opportunities. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.deltacollege.org/dept/ar/admissions/ces.html

Cresswell, J. (2002). Educational Research. Upper Saddle River. Merril Prentice Hall.

Early College Entrance Program, Ohio Valley College. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ovc.edu/base.cfm?page_id=938

Edwards, J. (2001, June). Bringing Secondary Education into the Information Age: Universal College Preparation. Education Commission of the States. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/26/54/2654.doc.

Hale, G. (2002). Postsecondary Options: Dual/Concurrent Enrollment.  Education Commission of the States Center for Community College Policy. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/28/11/2811.doc.

Hanson, S. (2001, October). Running Start 2000-01 Annual Progress Report, State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/data/rsrchrpts/runstart_a01.pdf.

Hoffman, N. (2003, July-August). College credit in high school: increasing college attainment rates for underrepresented students. Change. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web; http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1254/4_35/104209670/p6/article.jhtml?term=.

Joppe, M. The Research Process. Retrieved June 6, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/rp.htm

Kirst, M. (2001, May). Overcoming the High School Senior Slump: New Education Policies. Retrieved April 30, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/27/03/2703.htm. Full text not available.

Koenninger et al. (2002-2003). Running Start Annual Progress Report. State of Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Retrieved April 29. 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/data/rsrchrpts/runstart_a03.pdf. 

National Commission on the High School Senior Year. (2001, October) Raising our Sights: No High School Senior Left Behind. Retrieved April 30, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.woodrow.org/CommissionOnTheSeniorYear/Report/FINAL_PDF_REPORT.pdf

Peterson, K. (2003, January). Overcoming the Senior Slump: The Community College Role. ERIC Digests.

Post-secondary Enrollment Options. Concordia College. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://web.csp.edu/pseo/media/pseo_factsheet.pdf

Running Start. 2003. Running Start:  A progress report from the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Retrieved April 28th, from the World Wide Web: http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/legislative/OnePagers/2003/Running%20Start%20one-pager.pdf.

Schuh, B. (2001, February 1). Early College Program Proposed for Fall. The Guilfordian. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.guilfordian.com/news/2002/02/01/News/Early.College.Program.Proposed.For.Fall-175208.shtml.

Southwest Minnesota State University. Post Secondary Enrollment Options at Southwest Minnesota State University: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.southwest.msus.edu/advising_center/PSEO%20FAQ1.htm.

Syracuse University Project Advance. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://supa.syr.edu/SupaOnline/factsheet.html.

Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://dept.lamar.edu/taolith/

Western Piedmont Community College Concurrent Enrollment. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ets.wpcc.edu/Forms/ConcurrentEnrollment.pdf

 

Appendix A

 

Definitions

 

Definition of Advanced Placement classes:

Advanced placement classes are college-level classes generally taken at a high school and taught by qualified teachers. Students have the option of taking AP tests for college credit. Results are scored from one to five with most colleges awarding credit for scores of three or above on AP exams.


 

Appendix B

 

 

 

Chart 1: State policies and information for Dual/Concurrent Enrollment Policies:

State

Definition of Dual/Concurrent

Policy

Dual/Concurrent Enrollment Policy

Who Pays for Dual/Concurrent Enrollment?

Postsecondary or

Secondary

Credit Earned

Incentives for Dual/Concurrent Enrollment

Unique Characteristics of Dual/Concurrent Enrollment Programs

 

Alabama

 

Standard definition

State board of education policy enables high school students to take college courses for credit at two-year colleges.

 

Student or school district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Alaska

 

Standard definition

 

Dual enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

Student

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Arizona

 

Standard definition

A 1984 law stipulates that qualified high school students may enroll in community college and university courses. Community colleges may offer dual enrollment courses on high school campuses taught by high school instructors who are certified to teach those courses using community college syllabi and texts. Policies vary by community college district.

 

Student

 

Student pays standard tuition and community colleges are reimbursed by the state.

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Courses are accepted on transfer

 

No information available

 

Arkansas

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution for college-level credit only. 

Concurrent enrollment is defined as a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit.


Legislation enacted in 1995 ARK. CODE ANN. 6-18-223-(a)(2) stipulates that a student who enrolls in and successfully completes college-level courses shall be entitled to receive both secondary and postsecondary academic credit. Legislation enacted in 1999 states that the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board shall address accountability standards for dual enrollment programs (Title S.C.R. 20 Accountability Standards). ARK.CODE ANN. 6-18-223 concerns concurrent enrollment whereas ARK.CODE ANN. 6-60-202 refers to dual enrollment. Tech prep courses are not considered part of the concurrent enrollment program. High school students must be tested prior to enrolling in college English and/or math courses. 

 

The student pays but the high school district may pay for the student if it so chooses.

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

Private businesses often pay tuition for dual/concurrent enrollment students in order to expose the students to college.  Community colleges sometimes waive tuition fees for dual/concurrent enrollment students in exchange for the space that the high schools provide.

 

California

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California (continued)

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a student who is admitted jointly to a two-year and a four-year institution so that the student does not have to apply to the four-year institution after he/she completes specified courses. 

 

Concurrent enrollment is defined as a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution while still in high school.


California Education Code Section 48800-48802
states that a governing board of any school district may decide which students would benefit from advanced scholastic or vocational work. The Board, upon recommendation of the school principal and the consent of the student’s parents, may permit a student to attend a community college as a special part-time student. A student’s parent, regardless of the student’s age or class level, may request that the school district in which the student is enrolled, allow the student to attend a community college as a special full-time student. 

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

State law on concurrent enrollment authorizes but does not designate concurrent enrollment requirements.

 

Colorado

 

Standard definition

The 1988 Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act, C.R.S. 22-35-101…111, allows junior and senior high school students to take college courses at both public and nonpublic higher education institutions and to receive high school and/or college credit, which is what determines whether the school or college may claim state support. Students enrolled under the Postsecondary Options Act are not eligible for state or federal financial aid.

 

The Fast Track Program, C.R.S. 22-34-101, is for 12th-grade students who have fulfilled their high school graduation requirements. Under this act a college and school district may set up a mutual agreement. Unlike the Postsecondary Options Act, a student may carry a full college course load in the Fast Track program. (In the Postsecondary Options program a student may carry only two college courses per academic term.) Fast Track students earn college credit and have full rights and privileges as high school students but not as college students.

 

Student or school district.  School district reimburses student only if the student presents evidence of passing the college courses.  If the student fails the courses, the student or their guardians must pay.

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

The Colorado Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act was one of the first in the nation to allow a 13th grade for high schoolers. This permits a high school student to graduate from high school at the same time as earning his or her Associate of Arts degree. Distance education also is widely used.

 

Connecticut

 

Standard definition

 

Community colleges and the University of Connecticut have separate programs for high school students taking college courses for credit.

Student or community colleges

 

Community colleges often waive tuition and fees.

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Usually no problem in transferring dual enrollment credits

 

Dual enrollment programs are primarily vocational/tech-prep.

 

Delaware

 

Standard definition

 

Dual enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

School district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

There are no problems in transferring credits.

 

School district pays for transportation, books and tuition.

 

Florida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florida

 (continued)

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student enrolled in postsecondary courses for both high school and college-level credit.

A law enacted in 1973 (FS240.116(1)) provides options to high school students such as dual enrollment, vocational dual enrollment, early admission, the Advanced Placement Program, credit by examination and the International Baccalaureate Program. Joint dual enrollment and Advanced Placement courses must be incorporated within and subject to district inter-institutional articulation agreement provisions. The statute states that the dual enrollment program is for eligible high school students to enroll in postsecondary courses creditable toward a vocational certificate, associate degree or baccalaureate degree. Students enrolled in postsecondary courses that are not creditable toward the high school diploma shall not be classified as dually enrolled. Students are permitted to enroll in these programs during school hours, after school and during the summer. The State Board of Education shall adopt rules for any dual enrollment programs involving requirements for high school graduation. The Department of Education shall also develop guidelines for comparability across school districts of both student and teacher qualifications for dual enrollment courses. Student qualifications for dual enrollment include: a common placement exam, a 3.0 unweighted grade-point average and for students enrolling in vocational certificate courses, a 2.0 unweighted gradepoint average.  Exceptions to the GPA requirements can be made if the educational institutions agree and the terms of the agreement are contained within the dual enrollment inter-institutional articulation agreement.

 

State

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

Under Florida law, dually enrolled students are not assessed student fees, which represents a substantial savings for students. There are few course restrictions, a common course numbering system and quality assurance guidelines.  Through enrollment high school students can get a head start on their college education without giving up important high school experiences. A 1996 Postsecondary Education Planning Commission study found that dual enrollment allows students to (1) fulfill college-level educational requirements while still in high school; (2) enter college with career goals already in mind; (3) save time because they need not duplicate coursework already completed in high school; (4) save money because college tuition is not charged for courses taken in high school; (5) receive postsecondary credit when they pursue a degree at a college or university; (6) enrich their high school curriculum as well as their college program with advanced courses related to their career.

 

Dual enrollment and Advanced Placement are the major forms of articulated acceleration for students who are admitted into Florida postsecondary education institutions.  All 28 colleges participate in dual enrollment. The number of students participating in both programs steadily increased between 1992-99. More students participate in Advanced Placement than in dual enrollment, but the average dual enrollment student takes more accelerated courses than the average AP student.

 

Georgia

 

Joint enrollment is defined as an 11th- or 12th-grade high school student who enrolls in postsecondary courses while still in high school.

 

Early admission programs allow a high school student to enroll in postsecondary courses full-time following junior year of high school.

1995 GA. CODE ANN. 20-2-161.1 stipulates that any 11th- or 12th-grade student in any public school may apply to enroll in selected courses at a postsecondary institution. Georgia’s statewide Joint Enrollment Program allows high school students to graduate earlier. Students must meet statewide minimum admissions standards (which can be increased at the campus level). The standards are based on SAT/ACT scores, GPA, the exemption of all LS requirements for early admission, a written recommendation from a high school counselor/principal, written consent from a parent/guardian if under 18, and finally, the student must complete the University System of Georgia College Preparatory Curriculum requirements. In the early admission program, a student may enroll full time as a college student following junior year of high school.

 

State

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

The Joint Enrollment Program allows students to graduate earlier even though it is not officially recognized as an accelerated baccalaureate program.

 

Georgia has an early admissions program which permits students to enroll full time in college courses following their junior year of high school.

 

Hawaii

 

Standard definition

 

The 2000 legislature passed a Running Start measure. There has always been an early admit policy.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

Hawaii’s dual enrollment program, modeled after the Washington State Running Start Program, is in the process of being implemented.

 

Idaho

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard definition

The 1997 Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act allows 11th- or 12th-grade students to apply to any eligible public/nonpublic, two- or four-year higher education institution but they may only enroll in nonsectarian courses.

 

Student, school district or community college

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

There are no problems in transferring dual enrollment credit.

 

Idaho was the first state to allow high school students to take college courses full time.

 

Illinois

 

Standard definition

Board of Education policies encourage AP courses. The Illinois Community College Board has developed policies governing admission to postsecondary courses by high school students. The board also has developed funding policies for dual enrollment courses. Most college courses are offered by community colleges.

 

Student or school district. It is a local decision as to who pays the tuition costs for dually enrolled students.

 

 

More educational options

 

No information available

 

Indiana

 

 

 

Standard definition

The 1997 Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act permits high school juniors and seniors (and gifted and talented 9th and 10th graders) to enroll in courses on college campuses if they meet specified entrance requirements. No state mandates exist for college credit options for high school students, though statute allows such programs. Higher education institutions and schools may develop their own agreements and decide whether or not to provide or accept college credit programs. The 1996 Code 20-10.1-15-4 stipulates that high school students may obtain secondary credit for courses taken at a postsecondary institution. 

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

More educational options

 

No information available

 

Iowa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iowa

 (continued)

 

Standard definition

The 1987 Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act permits 11th- and 12th-grade students to enroll part time in nonsectarian college courses in eligible institutions. A gifted and talented student, according to the school’s criteria, may also enroll in college courses (Iowa Code section 247.43). A student may enroll part-time in an eligible postsecondary institution for no more than four semester terms or six quarter terms unless identified as a gifted and talented 9th- or 10th-grade student. Students may enroll in any of the three state universities, the 15 public community colleges, and accredited private institutions as defined in Iowa’s Code section 261-9(5) and are eligible for the Iowa Tuition Grant Program. Students must meet entrance requirements for postsecondary courses as determined by the postsecondary institution before they can enroll. Students may not enroll in eligible postsecondary courses if the high school in which a student is enrolled offers a comparable course. 

 

Student or school district. The school district pays unless the student does not successfully complete the college course(s), in which case the student must pay.

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Gifted and talented 9th and 10th graders may enroll in postsecondary courses. School district pays the cost of the course.

 

Students and parents receive counseling about the Postsecondary Options Act. Gifted and talented students at the 9th- or 10th-grade level may enroll in postsecondary courses.  

 

Kansas

 

Standard definition

Enacted in 1993, the Kansas Challenge to Secondary Schools Pupils Act (72-11a01-72-11a05 Citation of Act. (a) K.S.A. and amendments thereto) stipulates that 11th-and 12th-grade high school students may enroll in postsecondary courses if they meet the following criteria: (1) Student is a high school junior or senior as designated by the unified school district. (2) Student has the permission of the high school principal to enroll. A form must be completed and signed by the high school principal allowing the student to enroll in college courses. (3) The course must be a college course approved by the Kansas Department of Education and taught with the same requirements as any other college course. (4) The Board of Education of any school district and any eligible postsecondary institution may enter into an agreement regarding dual enrollment of high school students. This includes an agreement concerning academic credit for coursework, the requirement that the coursework be counted toward a degree, and how much the student pays for tuition. (5) The college must provide verification to the high school that the student is attending class. (6) Only students enrolled for college credit can be carried on the class roster.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Dual enrollment offers more educational options, as well as funding incentives for community colleges and universities to participate. 

 

College must provide verification to the school district that the student is attending class.

 

Kentucky

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kentucky

 (continued)

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student who has completed junior year and who is enrolled in postsecondary courses.

Do to deregulation, the Council on Postsecondary Education will no longer have a dual enrollment policy. Admission regulations currently allow high school students to earn college credits which are transferable. Community colleges have a policy on dual enrollment (Section IV of the Rules of the Senate of the Community Colleges) which states that high school students need not to have graduated from high school in order to enroll in community college courses. A high school student who wishes to dually enroll in community college courses must have completed the junior year of high school with a “B” average or better, submit ACT scores, an application form, written recommendations from the high school principal and guidance counselor, and certification of eligibility. High school students may not enroll in more than two courses per term unless more courses are approved by the community college president and documented in the student’s record. Public universities in Kentucky have institutional policies regarding dual enrollment rather than state-level policies.

 

Student or community college

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Louisiana

 

Standard definition


Louisiana has no state mandated programs but the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education has a policy stating that high school students are eligible for dual enrollment (School regulation Title 28 sec. 1523a). Colleges and universities have separate policies. 

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

More educational options

 

The governor of Louisiana has set up a task force to create state policy for dual enrollment.

 

Maine

 

Standard definition


Students may take college courses at higher education institutions if they are accepted to the institution and if their school district approves the dual enrollment. 

 

School district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Few course restrictions

Program is not limited to gifted and talented students. Counseling on postsecondary options is provided to students.

 

Maryland

 

Standard definition

 

No information available

 

Student

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Massachusetts

 

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit.

The General Laws of Massachusetts Chapter 15A: Section 39, Secondary Education Students Qualified to Enroll in Higher Education Institutions, allows that qualified high school students enrolled in public secondary schools may enroll as students in Massachusetts public postsecondary institutions. Students may enroll either full or for individual courses. The Board of Education and the Board of Higher Education shall establish qualification guidelines for this program, establish criteria for admission, and administer this program. Nonpublic school students are eligible to participate in the pro-gram with the under-standing that the crediting of such attendance for a high school diploma shall be the nonpublic school’s decision to make. Eleventh- and 12th-grade high school students with at least a “B” average may take courses at any of the public colleges at no cost.

 

Student, or school district or state

 

 

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Students do not pay tuition and there are few course restrictions. Students may enroll in college courses full-time. All public institutions of higher education allow dual enrollment. Both public and nonpublic school students can dually enroll. More educational options are available.

 

Students do not pay for books or fees.

 

Michigan

 

 

Michigan

 (continued)

 

Standard definition


Public Act 160 (HB 4643), Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program,
went into effect April 1, 1996. The program was modified and expanded from Section 21b of the State School Aid Act, which allows high school students to participate in dual enrollment or other postsecondary options. Qualified students for dual enrollment must take the MEAP High School Test and must be endorsed in the subject area in which they wish to dually enroll. If a subject has no endorsement, students are eligible to dually enroll in those areas as long as they have taken the MEAP High School Test. Public Act 178 (HB 5232), enacted in 1997 as an amendment to the Postsecondary Enrollment Options Act, defines an eligible student as being enrolled in at least one high school class in at least grade 11 in a school district in Michigan, except a foreign exchange student enrolled under a cultural exchange program. In short, the Postsecondary Enrollment Options bill establishes eligibility criteria for students, institutions and courses. It mandates eligible charges for tuition, course fees and registration fees that can be charged to a school district. It creates requirements for enrollment and credit. The bill requires schools to provide postsecondary options counseling and mandates school districts to report to the Department of Education.

 

School district

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit.

 

School districts pay tuition. Students can enroll in any number of college courses, the only requirement being that the student be enrolled in both the school district and the postsecondary institution during the school’s regular academic year and that the student take at least one high school class.

 

Students may attend any public or private degree granting higher education institutions in the state.

 

Michigan mandates students to receive postsecondary options counseling. Qualified students must take a state high school test and be endorsed in the subject area in which they wish to enroll in order to be eligible to dually enroll. 

 

Minnesota

 

Standard definition

Enacted in 1985, the Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program is the oldest dual enrollment program in the United States. All high school juniors/seniors, except cultural exchange students, and some adults 21 years of age who do not have a high school diploma, are eligible to participate under the High School Graduation Incentives Act. Students may enroll in any public or private postsecondary institution. The student may only enroll in nonsectarian courses. 

 

Student or the state

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Students get a head start on college credits and save money on postsecondary costs as they do no pay tuition. There are few course restrictions. In general, dual enrollment students do well and sometimes even better than their college counterparts.

 

Dual enrollment participants often have higher GPAs than regularly admitted postsecondary students. It has been reported that many AP classes are being dropped due to the impact of dual enrollment.

 

Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mississippi

(continued)

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution while still in high school.

Statute 37-29-1 Subsection 2 of Supplement, Vol. 10, authorizes the Boards of Trustees of community college districts to establish dual enrollment programs for high school students to take college-level classes. Students must meet the following conditions in order to enroll in a dual enrollment program: (1) Students must complete a minimum of 14 core high school units. (2) Students must have a minimum ACT composite score of 21 or the equivalent SAT score. (3) Students must have a 3.0 GPA on a 4.0 scale or better. (4) Students must have an written recommendation from their high school principal and/or guidance counselor. (5) Students who have not completed the minimum of 14 core high school units may be considered for the dual enrollment program if they have a minimum ACT composite score of 30 or the equivalent SAT score, and have the required GPA and recommendations.

 

High school students can gain early admission to a college on a full- or part-time basis if they meet the following criteria: (1) completion of minimum of 14 core high school units, (2) 3.0 GPA on a 4.0 scale or better; (3) unconditional written recommendation from high school principal or guidance counselor; (4) minimum ACT composite score of 26 or the equivalent SAT score; (5) written recommendation from the principal or guidance counselor that early admission is in the best educational interest of the student, and that the student’s age will not keep him/her from being a successful full-time college student.

 

School district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

More educational options

 

State law allows dual enrollment students to enroll only in community colleges.

 

Missouri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missouri

(continued)

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution while still in high school.

The Missouri Board of Higher Education has guidelines for dual enrollment courses taught in high schools by high school teachers; such courses also may be taught at the community college campus by college faculty. This policy only affects public institutions and those private institutions that choose to become signatories to this policy. These guidelines do not address technically oriented dual credit courses offered by some colleges. Dual enrollment courses taught by college faculty off-site from the high school also do not fall under these guidelines. Section 167.223, RSMo (1990), authorizes public high schools in conjunction with Missouri public community colleges and public or private four-year colleges and universities to offer postsecondary course options to high school juniors and seniors. In 1998, Section 167.223, RSMo, was amended to expand eligibility for dual enrollment courses to 9th- and 10th-grade high school students. Student dual enrollment eligibility varies according to the admission standards of the college or university offering the courses in the high school. All institutions require students to have a minimum overall GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale or the equivalent, and the student must be recommended by the high school principal or his or her official designee.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

In FY 1998, 33 colleges and universities in Missouri offered dual credit courses.  Approximately 50% of Missouri public high schools provide students with at least one dual credit opportunity.

 

Montana

 

Standard definition

 

No state mandated programs.  Dual/concurrent enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

Student

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Nebraska

 

 

 

Standard definition

 

Dual/concurrent enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

Student

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

Many dual enrollment courses are taught at the high school level.

 

Nevada

 

 

A concurrently enrolled student is a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit.

1995 Code 389.160 states that a student who successfully completes a postsecondary course must be permitted to apply that credit towards his/her high school degree (Board of Regent’s Policy Rev. 183 (06/00), Title 4, Chapter 14, Page 17 Section 21). The University and Community College System of Nevada concurrent enrollment policy permits students to register concurrently in courses at the various institutions subject to the following regulations: (1) Each student is personally responsible for obtaining the advanced written approval of the assigned faculty advisor or counselor at the home institution to assure the course(s) are applicable toward satisfying degree requirements. (2) The maximum combined concurrent registration load in any one semester is determined by the advisor and the dean of the college of the student’s home institution offering the degree or program. (3) Each institution should conduct periodic post-registration audits to identify any special problems that should be brought to the attention of the Articulation Board for further review and study. The Computing Center will support this effort by providing a report each semester listing the concurrent registrations within the system.

 

Student

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

New Hampshire

 

Standard definition

 

No state policy exists.  Dual/concurrent enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

Student or community college

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

Dual enrollment is considered a public relations tool by universities and colleges, so tuition is often waived.

 

New Jersey

 

Standard definition


Code 1995 Ch. 18A.61C
states that courses for college credit shall be established on public high school campuses for high school students.

 

State

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

Many varied postsecondary institutions offer dual enrollment options, which provides more educational options for students. Few course restrictions exist and the cost to students is minimal. Dual enrollment courses must be accepted on transfer.

 

A private out-of-state university is advertising itself to New Jersey dual enrollment students.

 

New Mexico

 

‘A concurrently enrolled student is a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit.

No state mandated college credit options programs exist. There are, however, voluntary concurrent enrollment and AP programs. The concurrent enrollment program allows qualified high school students to take postsecondary courses for dual credit, usually on college campuses. Concurrent enrollment agreements between schools and colleges must be in writing.

 

School district or the state

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

More educational options

 

No information available

 

New York

 

Standard definition

 

Commissioner’s Regulations 52.1(3) state that enrollment of secondary school students in postsecondary courses shall be strictly controlled by the postsecondary institution.

 

Student

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

Reimbursement of $100 will be given to the dual enrollment student who earns an “A” or “B” for the college course; if a student earns a “C,” he/she will receive a $50 reimbursement. Students who earn a “D” of “F” will not be reimbursed.

 

North Carolina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North Carolina

 (continued)

 

A concurrently enrolled student is a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit

The Huskins Bill and concurrent enrollment policies provide opportunities for community colleges and high schools to have articulated programs, which allow high school students to take courses at a community college. The Huskins Bill G.S. 115D-20(4) seeks to improve articulation and to increase student’s college participation rate without obscuring the distinct roles of high schools and community colleges. Local administrative boards and local school boards may create cooperative programs in the their communities to provide for college courses to be offered to qualified high school students with college credits to be awarded to those high school students on successful completion of their courses. The bill also presents nine criteria for how an operating agreement should be established between the local board of education and the board of trustees of the community college. Qualified students are defined as students in grades 9-12 who are socially and academically “mature” to handle college credit courses successfully. The high school and the community college must have a mutual agreement to define the criteria for student participation.

 

Community colleges are permitted to schedule college credit courses for high school students, however, qualified high school students have been permitted to enroll in regularly scheduled college credit courses for many years through a concurrent enrollment policy of the State Board of Community Colleges. This policy, as cited in NCAC 2C.0305, permits high school students to enroll in a community college course under the following conditions: (1) the student is at least 16 years of age; (2) the student has been recommended by the chief administrative public school officer and approved by the president of the community college; (3) the principal certifies that the student is taking at least three high school courses and is making appropriate progress toward graduation; (4) enrollment of high school students cannot displace adult college students. 

 

State

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

Dual credits transfer but are considered credits for “elective points” rather than for “quality points.”

 

North Dakota

 

 

A dually enrolled student is a high school student enrolled in a postsecondary institution for both high school and college-level credit.

Legislation passed in 1996, 28-32-01, Subdivision q of subsection 1, discusses dual enrollment. Section 403.5 Secondary-Postsecondary Articulation Agreements, Dual Credit Postsecondary Enrollment Options states that institutions may develop agreements with secondary schools to offer postsecondary credit. Such articulation agreements must include a list of eligible secondary courses and their postsecondary counterparts. They must contain procedures so that students with eligible secondary coursework may show postsecondary proficiency and there should be procedures for joint secondary-postsecondary review of the articulation agreement at regular intervals. Secondary and postsecondary officials must develop criteria which can be used to evaluate a student’s proficiency in an articulated course.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

All institutions in the state’s university system participate. Participation does not affect state funding to school districts. In some cases, tuition is discounted when a dual enrollment course is taught at the high school.

 

North Dakota offers dual enrollment through distance education through the “Interactive Great Western Network.”

 

Ohio

 

 

 

 

Ohio

 (continued)

 

 

 

Dual enrollment is defined as a high school junior or senior who may earn both high school and college-level credit.

Ohio has a Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program which allows high school juniors and seniors to earn high school and college credit through dual enrollment. The State Board of Education develops requirements for participation by schools. Legislation enacted in June 1999 requires students to have earned a minimum 3.0 GPA on a 4.0 scale (or equivalent) in high school courses in the same subject areas as the college courses in which they want to enroll through the Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program. 

 

School district, community college or the state

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

There is minimal or no cost to students and few course restrictions.

 

No information available

 

Oklahoma

A dually enrolled student is a 12th-grade high school student who may be enrolled in and provisionally accepted as a special student at a postsecondary institution in the Oklahoma State System of Higher Education.

A 12th-grade student can participate in dual enrollment programs if he/she is enrolled in an accredited high school and meets all the requirements for dual enrollment. A student may be provisionally accepted as a special student at a college or university in the Oklahoma State System of Higher Education. State Regents’ policy also provides for AP/IB programs and agreements between vocational-technical and postsecondary institutions.

 

Student

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

More educational options

 

Students must receive counseling about postsecondary enrollment. The policy is very specific about what requirements students must meet, including SAT/ACT scores, GPA and class rank.

 

Oregon

 

Standard definition

The 1991 Oregon Administrative Rule 581-043-0510 outlines the community college dual enrollment policy. Cooperative educational program agreements exist between high schools and colleges for college credit courses for high school students.

 

Student, school district or community college

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No problem in transferring dual credits except with private schools.

 

No information available

 

Pennsylvania

 

Standard definition

 

Dual enrollment is at the institutional level.

 

Student or school district


Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Rhode Island

 

 

Standard definition

 

Dual enrollment is at the institutional level.

 

Student

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

South Carolina

 

Standard definition

Dual enrollment is governed by state board policy. The state does provide some funding for AP classes. Many institutions offer college courses at high schools. The University of South Carolina-Columbia has an accelerated baccalaureate program.

 

Student or school district

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

South Dakota

 

 

Standard definition


There are no state-mandated college credit programs but the South Dakota Board of Regents set guidelines for dual enrollment policies. Public universities provide dual enrollment options.

 

Student or school district

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

South Dakota is in the process of establishing the Digital Dakota System, which is expected to be online by fall 2001.

 

Tennessee

 

 

 

Tennessee

 (continued)

 

A dually enrolled student is defined as a high school student in one or more specified college courses for which the student may earn both high school and college credit. A jointly enrolled student is defined as a high school student enrolled in one or more college courses for which the student will earn only college credit.

 

Eleventh- and 12th-grade students may enroll in college classes that meet high school requirements.  High school seniors may apply for early college admission. The Tennessee Board of Regents Non-Degree Admissions Policy concerning dual enrollment states that high school students who have completed their sophomore year of high school may be admitted for either joint enrollment or dual enrollment or both. Talented and gifted students in grades 9-12, under Chapter 395 of the Public Acts of 1983, may, with the recommendation of their high school principal and appropriate higher education authorities, enroll in and receive regular college degree credit from a Tennessee postsecondary institution if such a student has a minimum GPA of 3.2 on a 4.0 scale and if such a placement is a part of the student’s planned Individual Education Program. 

 

Student or school district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Texas

 

Standard definition


S.B. 1352, School District and Junior College Course Credits
pertains to course credits offered under an agreement between a school district and a community college. 

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

No information available

 

Utah

 

A concurrently enrolled student is defined as a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution while still in high school.


Utah State Board of Regents Policy R165
defines concurrent enrollment, eligibility requirements, faculty requirements, credit hour limits, and discusses college transcripts, funding and an oversight committee. The New Century Scholarship is given to high school graduates who have completed requirements for an associate degree prior to September 1st of the same year they qualify to graduate from high school (Utah State board of Regents Policy R604). Since 1996 Utah Code 53a-15-101(1) permits college credit courses to be taught in high school concurrent enrollment programs.

 

Student, school district, community college or the state

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Students can accelerate obtainment of a baccalaureate degree. Cost to students is minimal. The New Century Scholarship offers strong incentive to concurrently enroll.

Utah’s New Century Scholarship pays 75% of a student’s college tuition for a baccalaureate degree at any Utah state-operated institution of higher learning if he/she earns an associate degree by September 1st of the same year they qualify to graduate from high school.  Distance learning programs include EDNET and KULC. Brigham Young University (a private, postsecondary institution) accepts concurrent enrollment credits.

 

Virginia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virginia

 (continued)

 

Standard definition

Since 1988 Virginia has offered formal dual enrollment programs. The Virginia Plan for Dual Enrollment outlines the program specifics. Courses must be part of a degree, certificate, or diploma program at a community college. Courses cannot be developmental, physical education or health. High school students must be recommended by their schools and meet community college admissions requirements. High school faculty teaching dual credit courses must have the same minimum credentials of community college faculty. The Virginia Plan also includes a section on assessment.

 

Student or the school district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Dual enrollment results in time and money savings. Community colleges and universities benefit from the generation of FTEs. Dual enrollment improves cooperation and communication between schools and postsecondary institutions.

 

No information available

 

Vermont

 

Standard definition

Dual enrollment is on an institutional basis. Currently Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, and the Vermont Department of Education are considering the possibility of bringing a proposed statewide dual enrollment policy to the state legislature. In addition to serving higher achieving high school students, Vermont is exploring the possibility of a dual enrollment model that will create alternative college learning opportunities for “at risk” students.

 

Student

 

Only secondary credit, only postsecondary credit or both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

No information available

 

The state is looking at developing a statewide dual enrollment policy than not only allows high achieving students to take college courses, but also one that gives alternative college learning opportunities to “at-risk” students. 

 

Washington

A dually enrolled student is a high school student who is enrolled in a postsecondary institution. A concurrently enrolled student is enrolled at two or more community colleges at the same time.


The Running Start Program permits high school juniors and seniors to enroll in college-level courses at community colleges. The state also offers College in High School programs, AP and IB. Created by the state legislature in 1990, the Running Start Program was a part of the Learning by Choice Law.

 

School district

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

The Running Start Program offers minimal costs to students as well as challenging classes and flexibility of courses. The program has been well received by parents and students alike.

 

No information available

 

Wisconsin

 

Standard definition


Wisconsin code states that any public 11th- or 12th-grade student may enroll in an institution of higher education.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

Cost to students is minimal and dual enrollment provides more educational options.

 

No information available

 

West Virginia

 

Standard definition

 

Dual enrollment is on an institutional basis.

 

Student, community college or the state

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

There are no problems in transferring dual credits.

 

No information available

 

Wyoming

 

Standard definition

Wyoming State Statute 21-20-201, Article 2, Wyoming Postsecondary Education Options Program gives guidelines for agreements between school districts and postsecondary institutions, student participation, credits, financial arrangements and transportation.

 

Student

 

Both secondary and postsecondary credit

 

There are no problems in transferring dual enrollment credits.

 

There are no incentives for the dual enrollment program to grow because of the standards at the high school level.

 

Compiled by Genevieve Hale, ECS Center for Community College Policy.

 

 

© Copyright 2002 by the Education Commission of the States (ECS). All rights reserved.

 

The Education Commission of the States is a nonprofit, nationwide organization that helps state leaders shape education policy. It is ECS policy to take affirmative action to prevent discrimination in its policies, programs and employment practices.

 

To request permission to excerpt part of this publication, either in print or electronically, please fax a request to the attention of the ECS Communications Department, 303.296.8332 or e-mail ecs@ecs.org. 

Used with Permission: “Dear Shelly, Permission is granted to excerpt the graph from the Education Commission of the States (ECS) StateNote on Enrollment, "Postsecondary Options: Dual/Concurrent Enrollment," for use in your appendix for your paper.” Email, April 29, 2004.

 

 


Appendix C

Complete listing of distance learning courses reported by the colleges/universities responding to the questionnaire (see page 22):

 

Institution 1:

CHEM 101, 102, 103 General Chemistry

CHEM 470                 Natural Products

ENGL 434                   Advanced Engineering Syntax

PEAC 101A                Jogging

HLED 162                   Fitness for Life

HLED 166                   Health and Education

MGT 477                    Electronic Commerce

INFS 144                     PC Operating Systems

INFS 148                     PC Spreadsheets

INFS 149                     PC Databases
MATH 019                 Intro to Algebra

MATH 096                 Intermediate Algebra

MATH 222                 Intro. To Statistics

NURS 375                  Transcultural Nursing

NURS 375                  End of life Issues

BIOL 345                    Environmental Science

BIOL 111, 112, 113    Biological Foundation

 

Institution 2:

Themes in Literature

Broadcast Newswriting

Selected grad. Courses

General Sociology

Methods of teaching Bible

 

Institution 3:

Physical science

Astronomy

Denominations in America

 

Institution 4:

See ADEC course listing @ www.adventistedu.org (course listing for this institution was not current on the web site; no courses were found)

 

Institution 5:

Core curriculum for medical residents

 

Institution 6:

Most all in our bulletin except nursing and social work

 

Institution 7:

We are affiliated with HIS/Griggs University, so all courses available through our External Degree affiliation w/HIS are (college/university) transcripted courses.

 

Institution 8:

Physical science

Astronomy

Denominations in America

 

Institution 9:

Social Work Theory

Religion in Elem School

Religion in Secondary School

School Leadership

Broadcast Newswriting

Gen Sociology

 

 


Appendix D

 

Compiled AP Course List (see page 29):

 

1

Advanced Computer Application

2

Anatomy and Physiology    

4

Biology                      

1

Biology II

11

Calculus (online course at one school due to low enrollment)

2

Chemistry     

1

Chemistry                 

9

English                      

2

English Composition 101 & 102 (one taught by visiting college professors)

3

English IV (Literature)         

5

English Language and composition           

5

English Literature and composition

1

Environmental Science        

2

General Psychology             

1

Java Programming

1

Listening to Music                

2

Physics                      

4

Politics/American Government       

1

Pre Calculus              

3

Spanish                      

1

Spanish III

1

US History (next year)

7

US/American History          

1

World History                       

 

 

Process for Conferring Credit

Compiled comments: “What is your process for conferring credit for advanced placement classes?”

§         The grade that is given for comp 101 & 102 is also given to seniors for their English IV credit.

§         If students pass the AP exam with a 3 or better, they receive the additional GPA point for the class.

§         We grant high school credit for successful completion. AP scores are sent on to selected college for credit approval for each student scoring well enough on test.

§         Students receive high school credit as they would for any class taken.

§         These classes have a GPA multiplication factor of 1.25 to enhance the GPA since they are more challenging.

§         Pass the class and pass the AP exam.

§         Regular credit plus college credit where applicable.

§         Honors credit until verification that they passed the test.

§         They are awarded regular/standard semester periods.

§         Same as “regular” courses.

§         No special process.

§         Students enrolled in the AP class receive AP credit.

§         Their grades are on a 5.0 scale. If they get les than a B they get regular credit and class level.

§         Grade achieved in the class since the class is taken in place of the regular 12th grade English Lit.

§         It receives the same credit (1 unit) as other English classes.

§         Pass AP test – they receive AP credit/ do not pass then high school credit.

§         The student receives credit from Sunnydale Academy and the college we work through to give this class. (They have 2 transcripts.)

§         PUC gives our teacher permission to teach class.

§         Completion of the course – weighted GPA credit given as follows: A = 5 pts. B = 4 pts.

§         We do the 4 scale – no accelerated GPA’s

§         A = 5.0, B = 4.0, C = 3.0, D = 1.0, F = 0.0

§         Dual credit through SAU

§         Student must pass with a C or better. All are required to take the AP test at the end of the school year.

§         We teach the class as a regular AP level class, give grades as any other class, and administer the AP test in May. College credit is given by colleges based on test score alone. Classroom grade has nothing to do with college credit.

§         Class received 10 units of credit on 5.0 scale.

§         GPA requirement; prerequisite requirements; Advanced Placement GPA based on 5.0 scale.

§         If they take the class and don’t take AP test, an A = 4.5. If they take the AP test and pass with a 3, 4, or 5, an A = 5.0.

 

Appendix E

 

Surveys for colleges, academies, and church clerks

 

College VP Questionnaire
Questionnaire

 

To be filled out by college/university academic vice president or person that he/she delegates

 

1.      Does your institution currently offer any advanced placement classes for high school students?

_____ yes – Go on to 1a-e

_____ no – Go on to 2

1a. Please give additional information about advanced placement classes offered to high school students.

      What are the eligibility requirements for enrollment in advanced placement classes?

____GPA requirements

What is the minimum GPA: ____

____Age requirements

What is the minimum age: ____

____Seniors only

____ Juniors and seniors

____ Other (Please detail:

 

 

 

1b. What kinds of advanced placement classes do you offer to high school students?

____ Classes taught by on-site faculty at your institution (high school students must be on the college/university campus to participate)

____ Classes taught by college professors visiting academy campuses

____ Other (Please detail:

 

 

 

1c. What advanced placement classes do you currently offer?

 

 

 

 

 

1d. What is your process for accepting credit for advanced placement classes from academies?

 

 

 

1e. If visiting college professors teach some advanced placement classes at some academies, how is reimbursement for these classes handled?

 

 

 

 

2.      Have you considered offering advanced placement classes for academy junior or junior and senior students?

____ yes

____ no

 

3.      Have you offered advanced placement classes in the past?

____ yes

____ no

 

4.      Are you aware of any dual enrollment/dual credit programs in your state that offer high school credit for college courses?

____ yes

____ no

 

5.      Does your institution accept any credits from public dual enrollment/dual credit programs?

____ yes

____ no

 

6.      Does your institution offer any distance education classes?

____ yes (if yes, please list all distance education classes)

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


____ no

 

7.      Does your institution offer general education college classes to high school juniors and/or seniors?

____ yes (if yes, please list all classes available to high school juniors and/or seniors)

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


____ no

 

8.      What benefits do you see in offering general education classes through distance education (online learning)?

 

 

 

 

 

9.      What drawbacks do you see for offering general education classes through distance education (online learning)?

 

 

 

 

 

10.  What support does your institution give you for the development of distance education courses?

 

 

 

 

 

Please send completed questionnaire to:

Shelley Bacon

556 Hotchkiss Road

Colville, WA  99114

509-684-1005

Bacon.home@juno.com

 


Academy Registrar Survey

Questionnaire

 

To be filled out by academy registrars

 

2.      Does your academy currently offer any advanced placement classes for high school students?

_____ yes – Go on to 1a-e

_____ no – Go on to 2

1a. Please give additional information about advanced placement classes offered to high school students.

      What are the eligibility requirements for enrollment in advanced placement classes?

____GPA requirements

What is the minimum GPA: ____

____Age requirements

What is the minimum age: ____

____Seniors only

____ Juniors and seniors

____ Other (Please detail:

 

 

 

1b. What kinds of advanced placement classes do you offer to high school students?

____ Classes taught by on-site faculty

____ Classes taught by visiting college professors

____ Other (Please detail:

 

 

 

1c. What advanced placement classes do you currently offer?

 

 

 

 

 


1d. What is your process for conferring credit for advanced placement classes?

 

 

 

1e. If visiting college professors teach some advanced placement classes at your school, how is reimbursement for these classes handled?

 

 

 

 

8.      Have you considered offering advanced placement classes for your junior or junior and senior students?

____ yes

____ no

 

9.      Have you offered advanced placement classes in the past?

____ yes

____ no

 

10.  Are you aware of any dual enrollment/dual credit programs in your state that offer high school credit for college courses?

____ yes

____ no

 

 

 

Please send completed questionnaire to:

Shelley Bacon

556 Hotchkiss Road

Colville, WA  99114

509-684-1005

Bacon.home@juno.com


Church Clerk Questionnaire

Questionnaire  

Church name and location: ______________ Membership: ___

 

To be filled out by Church Clerk or Educational Secretary (or person of his/her choosing familiar with the youth of the church)

 

For the purpose of research about implementing a faith-based, distinctly Seventh-day Adventist educational program to meet the needs of Adventist high school students, please fill out the following questionnaire and table to the best of your knowledge. If you have more than 40 high school aged students in your congregation, please make a copy of these pages and write “section 2” on the upper right hand corner of each additional page.  If you would like to complete this survey in a digital format, please email me at bacon.home@juno.com.

 

Total number of ALL students in your church:

In grades K-8 _______

In grades 9-12 ________

In college:                    ________

 

Track each student you can, beginning with their freshman year of high school and continuing through their first year of college. Follow the example in the chart labeled “Sample Table.”

 

Please send completed questionnaire to:

Shelley Bacon

556 Hotchkiss Road

Colville, WA  99114

509-684-1005

Bacon.home@juno.com

 

 

Home

School

Public School

Local 10 or 12 grade day academy

Boarding Academy

Community College (Dual enrollment program)

Other

(Christian schools, distance education, etc.)

Community College

(Regular enrollment)

Adventist College

Student 1

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 2

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 3

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 4

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 5

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 6

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 7

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 8

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 9

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 10

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 11

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college

Student 12

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

 

 

Junior

Senior

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Freshman in college

Freshman in college